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Vision Cellular Suport System™ - Research Citations


C. Chitchumroonchokchai, J.A. Bomser, J.E. Glamm, M.L. Failla, “Xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol decrease UVB-induced lipid peroxidation and stress signaling in human lens epithelial cells”, J Nutr  134(12), (2004), 3225-3232

E. Camera, F. Daubrawa, C. Fabbri, A. Mastrofrancesco, M. Picardo, H. Sies, W. Stahl, “Astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and beta-carotene differently affect UVA-induced oxidative damage and expression of oxidative stress-responsive enzymes”, Exp Dermatol 18(3), (2009), 222-231

J. Kaikkonen, J. Karppi, K. Nyyssonen, A.G. Olsson, T. H. Rissanen, J. T. Salonen S. Voutilainen, , “Effects of astaxanthin supplementation on lipid peroxidation”, Int J Vitam Nutr Res  77(1), (2007), 3-11

K. Suganuma, H. Nakajima, M. Ohtsuki, G. Imokawa, “Astaxanthin attenuates the UVA-induced up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase-1 and skin fibroblast elastase in human dermal fibroblasts”, J Dermatol Sci 58(2), (2010), 136-142

M. Berrettini, G. Falcioni,  D. Fedeli, M. Santocono, M. Zurria, “Influence of astaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein on DNA damage and repair in UVA-irradiated cells”, J Photochem.Photobiol.B  85(3), (2006), 205-215

N.M. Lyons, N.M. O'Brien, “Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture”, J Dermatol Sci 30(1), (2002), 73-84

R. F. Jacob, R. P. Mason, H. McNulty,  “Biologic activity of carotenoids related to distinct membrane physicochemical interactions”, Am J Cardiol  101(10A), (2008), 20D-29D


Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 94-95


V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, "Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme q10 following oral supplementation", The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11(2), (2000), 109-113

Goji fruit

H. K. Kim, H. P. Kim, J. Kim, S. Y. Kim, Y. C. Kim, Y. C.  Kim, E. J. Lee, J. H. Park, “Zeaxanthin dipalmitate from Lycium chinense fruit reduces experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats”,  Biol Pharm Bull 25(3), (2002), 390-392

H. P. Kim, S. Y. Kim, Y. C.  Kim, and Y. C. Kim, E. J. Lee, “Zeaxanthin dipalmitate from Lycium chinense has hepatoprotective activity”, Res Commun.Mol.Pathol Pharmacol 97(3), (1997), 301-314

Michael Tierra, Planetary Herbology (Twin Lakes: Lotus Press, 1988)

R. C. Chang, C. M. Che, S. W. Lai, S. K. Leung, K. F. So, M. S. Yu, W. H. Yuen, S. Y. Zee, “Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity”,  Exp Gerontol   40(8-9), (2005), 716-727

Z. H. Jiang, K. S. Leung, Y.Li, C. Ma, Y. Peng, Z. Zhao, “Quantification of zeaxanthin dipalmitate and total carotenoids in Lycium fruits (Fructus Lycii)”, Plant Foods Hum Nutr 60(4), (2005), 161-164


M. E. Camilo, R. Lourenco, "Taurine: a conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease", Nutr Hosp 17(6), (2002), 262-270

Lutein and Zeaxanthin

C. Bruno, G. Fabrizi, P. Morganti, “Protective effects of oral antioxidants on skin and eye function”, Skinmed  3(6), (2004), 310-316

G. Aldini, E. J. Johnson, K. Kraemer, N. I. Krinsky, N. Musaeus, H. Rasmussen, R. M. Russell, H. Woolf, K. J. Yeum, X. Zhao, “Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women”,  Am J Clin Nutr 83(1), (2006), 163-169


A. Crozier, B. Daneshvar, L. O. Dragsted, J. Haraldsdottir, P. Knuthsen,  S.T.  Lauridsen, S. E. Nielsen, B. Sandstrom and J. F. Young, “Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status”, Am J Clin Nutr 69(1), (1999), 87-94

B. Stavric, “Quercetin in our diet: from potent mutagen to probable anticarcinogen”, Clin Biochem 27(4), (1994), 245-248

W. J. Angerson, M. E. Lean, and M .Noroozi, “Effects of flavonoids and vitamin C on oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes”, Am J Clin.Nutr  67(6), (1998), 1210-1218

Schizandra fruit

E. I. Mel'nik, S. S. Timoshin, "Effect of  Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress",  Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 98(6), (1984), 1706-1708

F. Ahumada, J. Hermosilla, "Studies on the effect of Schizandra chinensis extract on horses submitted to exercise and maximum effort",  Phytotherapy Research 3(5), (1989), 175-179

G. N. Choi, S. G. Choi, H. J. Heo, C. H. Jeong,  J. H. Kim, and J.H. Kwak, "Antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effects of methanol extract from Schizandra chinensis using an in vitro system", Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology 41, (2009)

M. H. Joo, S.H. Kim, and S.H. Yoo, "Structural identification and antioxidant properties of major anthocyanin extracted from Omija (Schizandra chinensis) fruit", Journal of Food Science 74(2), (2009), C134-C140

P. J. Chu, N. Nishiyama, "An herbal prescription, S-113m, consisting of biota, ginseng and schizandra, improves learning performance in senescence accelerated mouse", Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 19(3), (1996), 388-393

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 145-150, 366


G. Clément, C. Giddey, R. Menzi, “Amino acid composition and nutritive value of the alga Spirulina maxima”, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 18, (1967), 497–501


P. Bönöczk, Z. Cserjés, G. Kiss, E. Szikszay, S. Végh, “Retrospective analysis of the effect of vinpocetine infusion in ophthalmologic disorders”, Orv Hetil  147(49), (2006), 2361-5

S.E. Avetisov, T. N. Kiseleva, E.A. Kravchuk, luM Lagutina, ”Effect of vasoactive agents on visual functions and ocular blood flow in patients with early manifestation s of age-related macular degeneration”,  Vestn Oftalmol  123(3), (2007), 26-8

T. Alexy, Z. Biro, T. Habon, R. Halmosi, B.Horvath, G. Kesmarky, Z. Marton, L. Szapary, , K. Toth,   J. Vekasi, “In vitro antioxidant properties of pentoxiyflline, piracetam, and vinpocetine”,  Clin Neuropharmcol  25(1), (2002), 37-42

Liver and vision tonics

Codnopsis root
Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 157-159

Milk Thistle
Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 157-158

Schizandra fruit
Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 145-150

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 232

Chinese salvia root
Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 235

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 218-219, 367


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