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ProstateEssence™ - Research Citations

G.L. Andriole, A.L. Avins, M.J. Barry, J.M. Betz, A. Cantor, E.D. Crawford, H.e. Foster jr., S.A. Kaplan,  K.J. Kreder, J.W. Kuesk, J.Y. Lee, A. McCullough, K.T. McVary, S. Meleh, C.M. Meyers, M.J. Naslund, J.C. Nickel, C.G. Roehrborn, O.D. Williams, “Effects of increasing doses of saw palmetto extract on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial”, Jama 306(12), (2011), 1344-51
R. MacDonald, I Rutks, J.W. Tacklind, T.J. Wilt, “Serenoa repens monotherapy for benign prostatic hyperpasia (BPH): an updated Cochrane systematic review”, BJU int. 109(12), (2012), 1756-61

Lotus Institute of Integrative Medicine, Clinical Manual of Oriental Medicine, (California: Lotus Institute, 2002), 58, 378-381.

Astragalus root

B.-M. Shao, W. Xu, "A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 320(4), (2004), 1103-1111
W. C. S. Cho and K. N. Leung, "In vitro and in vivo immunomodulating and immunorestorative effects of Astragalus membranaceus", Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113(1), (2007), 132-141
Z. G.Liu, Z. M. Xiong, and X. Y. Yu, "Effect of astragalus injection on immune function in patients with congestive heart failure", Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi= Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine/Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban 23(5), (2003), 351


A. Irwin, M.A. Kenney,  H. McCoy, C. Montgomery, R. Orell, L. Williams, “Relation of Boron to the composition and mechanical properties of bone”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 49-53

C.D. Hunt,”The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 35-43

L. J. Taper, S. L. Volpe, "The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 6(3), (1993), 291-296

Wade T. Barranco, Curtis D. Eckhert, and Paul F. Hudak, “Evaluation of ecological and in vitro effects of boron on prostate cancer risk”, Cancer Causes and Control 18(1) (2007), 71-77

Coix seed

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 204, 359.


Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 129-130.

Myrrh gum

A.M. Ageel, M.S. Al-Said, M.A. Al-Yahya, J.S. Mossa, N.S. Parmar, M. Tariq, “Anti-inflammatory activity of Commiphora molmol”, Agents Actions 17(3-4), (1986), 381-2

Phellodendron bark

S. Ventura, and Y. Xu, "Extracts of bark from the traditional Chinese herb Phellodendron amurense inhibit contractility of the isolated rat prostate gland", Journal of Ethnopharmacology 127(1), (2010), 196-199

Phytosterol complex

D.M. Hiltil, K.F. Klippel, B. Schipp, “A multicentric, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperpasia. German BPH-Phyto Study group”, J Urol 80(3), (1997), 427-32

R.R. Berges, T. Senge, HJ Trampisch, J. Windeler, “Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperpasia. Beta-sitosterol Study Group”, Lancet 345(8964), (1995), 1529-32

Poria Cocos

José-Luis Ríos, "Chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Poria cocos", Planta Medica-Natural Products and MedicinalPlant Research 77(7), (2011), 681

L. Gapter, Z. Wang, "Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pachymic acid from Poria cocos", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 332(4), (2005), 1153-1161

Y.-g. Wang, "To explore the chinese medicine syndrome types and integrative therapy from clinical relative factors of patients with advanced prostate cancer", Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 15(3), (2009), 166-167

W. A. N. G. Hong-zhi, "Effects of total glucosides of peony on the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-αand IL-10 in the rat model for chronic abacterial prostatitis", Journal of Chongqing Medical University 2, (2010), 024

Vitamin D

Bio-Ying Bao, Huei-ju Ting, Jong-We Hsu and Yi-Fen Lee, “Protective role of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 against oxidative stress in nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cells”, Int J Cancer 122, (2008), 2699-2706

C. Garland, F. Garland, "Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Colon Cancer: Eight-Year Prospective Study”, The Lancet 334(8673), (1989), 1176-1178

C.S. Fuchs, E. Giovannucci, B.W. Hollis, Y. Liu, E.B. Rimm, M.J. Stampfer, W.C. Willett,  “Prospective study of predictors of vitamin D status and cancer incidence and mortality in men”, J Natl Cancer Inst 98(7) (2006), 451-9

D. E. Cole, H. M. Trang, "Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2", Am J Clin Nutr 68(4), (1998), 854-858

G. Rammos, P. Tseke, "Vitamin D, the renin-angiotensin system, and insulin resistance", International Urology and Nephrology 40(2), (2008), 419-426

Hugo Van Baelen, Roger Bouillon, Marc De Maeyer, Anja Rabijns, Camiel De Ranter, Christel Verboven, “A structural basis for the unique binding features of the human vitamin D-binding protein”, Nature Structural Biology 9(2), (2002), 131-136

J. L. Anderson, H. T. May, "Relation of Vitamin D Deficiency to Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Disease Status, and Incident Events in a General Healthcare Population", The American Journal of Cardiology 106(7), (2010), 963-968

J. Lau, A.G. Pittas, “The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92(6), (2007), 2017-2029

J. Michael Gaziano, Edward L. Giovannucci, J. Bruce W. Hollis, David Hunter, Haojie Li, Jing Ma, Lorelei A. Mucci, Meir J. Stampfer, “A Prospective Study of Plasma Vitamin D Metabolites, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms, and Prostate Cancer”, PLoS Medicine 4(3), (2007), 0562-0571

K. Helzlsouer, J.Tangrea, "Serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and the subsequent risk of colon and rectal cancer in Finnish men", Cancer Causes and Control 8(4), (1997), 615-625

L.A.G. Armas, J. Grote, R.P. Heaney, R.L. Horst, R.R. Recker, “Vitamin D3 is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans”, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Laura A.G. Armas, Robert P. Heaney, Bruce W. Hollis, “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans”, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89(11), (2004), 5387-5391

Lisa A.Houghton, and Reinhold Vieth, "The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(4), (2006), 694-697

Michael F. Holick, “The Vitamin D Epidemic and its Health Consequences”, J Nutr 135, (2005), 2739S-2748S

M. F. Holick, “Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease", Am J Clin Nutr 80(6), (2004), 1678S-1688S

M. F. Holick, "Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis", Am J Clin Nutr 79(3), (2004), 362-371

M. J. Pencina, T. J. Wang, “Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease", Circulation 117(4), (2008), 503-511

Robert P. Heaney, “Lessons for nutritional science from vitamin D”, Am J Clin Nutr 69, (1999), 825-6

Robert P. Heaney, “Vitamin D: Criteria for safety and efficacy”, Nutrition Reviews 66(2), (2008), S178-S181

R. P. Heaney, R. R. Recker, "Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(3), (2011), E447-E452

U. A.Ajani, E. S. Ford, "Concentrations of Serum Vitamin D and the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Adults", Diabetes Care 28(5), (2005), 1228-1230

Y. Liel, E. Ulmer, "Low circulating vitamin D in obesity", Calcif Tissue Int 43(4), (1988), 199-201

Selenium (L-methyl selenocysteine)

A. C. Gao, N. Nadiminty, “Selenium and Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer”, (2009)

J. Liu, G. Luo, “Selenoproteins and Thyroid Cancer:
Selenoproteins and Mimics”, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, (2012), 173-182

J. Mohler and D. Tindall,”Androgen Action in Prostate Cancer” Springer US: 755-780

P. D. Whanger,”Selenium and its relationship to cancer: an update”, British Journal of Nutrition, 91, (2004), 11-28

P.D. Whanger, “Selenocompounds in Plants and Animals and their Biological Significance”, J Am Coll Nutr 21(3), (2002), 223-232



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