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ProFema™ - Research Citations

Asparagus Root

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 183-184.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 154-156.

Beta Carotene

Cristina Palacios, "The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z", Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 46(8), (2006), 621-628

H. Sies and W. Stahl, "Antioxidant activity of carotenoids", Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24(6), (2003), 345-351

James Allen Olson, "Provitamin A function of carotenoids: the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A", The Journal of Nutrition 119(1), (1989), 105

Joseph L Napoli, and Kevin R. Race, "Biogenesis of retinoic acid from beta-carotene. Differences between the metabolism of beta-carotene and retinal", Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33), (1988), 17372-17377

Mark Berneburg, Regina Goralczyk, Eicker, Jörg, Viola Kürten, Jean Krutmann, Georges Riss, and Susanne Wild, "Betacarotene supplementation protects from photoaging-associated mitochondrial DNA mutation", Photochem Photobiol Sci 2(6), (2003), 655-659

R. Blomstrand, Dew S. Goodman, Helen S. Huang, T. Shiratori and B. Werner, "The intestinal absorption and metabolism of vitamin A and beta-carotene in man", Journal of Clinical Investigation 45(10), (1966), 1615


V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, "Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme q10 following oral supplementation", The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11(2), (2000), 109-113

Black Cohosh

C. Brucker, C. Gorkow, K. Raus, and W. Wuttke, “First-time proof of endometrial safety of the special black cohosh extract (Actaea or Cimicifuga racemosa extract) CR BNO 1055”, Menopause. 13(4), (2006), 678-691

C. Gorkow, D. Seidlová-Wuttke, W. Wuttke, “The Cimicifuga preparation BNO 1055 vs. conjugated estrogens in a double-blind placebo-controlled study: effects on menopause symptoms and bone markers”, Maturitas 44(1), (2003), S67-77

D. Cheema, A. Coomarasamy, T. El-Toukhy, “Non-hormonal therapy of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms: a structured evidence-based review”, Arch Gynecol Obstet 276(5), (2007), 463-9

E. Liske, and P. Wüstenberg, “Therapy of climacteric complaints with Cimicifuga racemosa: herbal medicine with clinically proven evidence [poster presentation]”, Menopause 5(4), (1998), 250

H. Boon, E. Guns, D. Oneschuk, R. Walji, J. Younus, “Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa [L.] Nutt.): safety and efficacy for cancer patients”, Suppor Care Cancer 15(8), (2007), 913-21

M. Birkhäuser, C.H. Bodmer, S. Frei-Kleiner, V.W. Rahlfs, W. Schaffner, “Cimicifuga racemosa dried ehtanolic extract in menopausal disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial”, Maturias 51(4), (2005), 397-404

MD. Eroglu, H. B. Karahan, E. Kuscu, Oktem, N. Taskintuna, and H. B.Zeyneloglu, “Black cohosh and fluoxetine in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms: a prospective, randomized trial”,  Adv Ther  24(2), (2007), 448-461

M. Friede, J. Freudenstien, H.H. Henneicke-von Zepelin, E. Liske, R. Osmers,  J. Schnitker, “Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms”, Obstet Gynecol 105(5), (2005), 1074-83

N. Acs, F. Banhidy, G. Vermes, “The effects of remifemin on subjective symptoms of menopause”, Adv Ther 22(2), (2005), 148-154

Rachel L Ruhlen, Edward R. Sauter, Grace Y. Sun, “Black Cohosh: Insights into its Mechanism(s) of Action”, Integrative Medicine Insights 3, (2008), 21-32

W. Bai,  L. Geng, H.H. Henneicke-von Zepelin, L. Hu, C. Jiao,  E. Liske, J. Liu, S. Wang, Z. Zhang, S. Zheng, “Efficacy and tolerabitliy of medicinal product containing an isoprpanolic black cohosh extract in Chinese women with menopausal symptoms: a randomized, double blind, parallel-controlled study versus tibolone”, Maturitas 58(1), (2007), 31-41


A. Irwin, M.A. Kenney,  H. McCoy, C. Montgomery, R. Orell, L. Williams, “Relation of Boron to the composition and mechanical properties of bone”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 49-53

C.D. Hunt, J.R. Hunt, L.M. Mullen, F.H. Nielsen, ”Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women”, FASEB J  1(5), (1987), 394-7

C.D. Hunt,”The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 35-43

L. J. Taper, S. L. Volpe, "The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 6(3), (1993), 291-296


A. A. Silver, and John C. Krantz jr, "The Effect of the Ingestion of Burdock Root on Normal and Diabetic Individuals A Preliminary Report*", Annals of Internal Medicine 5(3), (1931), 274-284

Chen, Fu-An, An-Bang Wu, and Chau-Yang Chen, "The influence of different treatments on the free radical scavenging activity of burdock and variations of its active components", Food Chemistry 86(4), (2004), 479-484

Lin, Chun-Ching, Jer-Min Lin, Jeng-Jer Yang, Shu-Chuan Chuang, and Takashi Ujiie, "Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa", The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 24(02), (1996), 127-137

Chasteberry (Vitex)

C. Lauritzen, H.D. Reuter, R. Repges, “Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex angus castus: Controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine”, Phytomedicine 4(3), (1997), 183-189

D. Berger, W. Schaffner, E. Schrader, ”Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre- menstrual syndrome (PMS)”,  Arch Gynecol Obstet  264(3), (2000), 150-153

M. Albrecht, C. Peters-Welte, “Menstrual abnormalities and PMS. Vitex agnus-castus in a study of application”, Therapiewoche Gynakologie 7(1), (1994), 49-52

M Atmaca, S. Kumru, E. Tezcan, “Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder”,  Hum Psychopharmacol 18(3), (2003), 191-195

R. Schellenberg, “Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study”, BMJ 2001; 322(7279):134-137

S. Mills, S. Turner, “A double-blind clinical trial on a herbal remedy for premenstrual syndrome: a case study”, Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1(2), (1993), 73-77

Dong Quai (Angelica)

A.  Fugh-Berman, and F. Kronenberg, “Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials”, Ann Intern Med 137(10), (2002), 805-813

B. Kaplan, and C. Rotem, “Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study”, Gynecol.Endocrinol 23(2), (2007), 117-122

C. Breed, T.S. Hudson, L. Standish, “Clinical and endocrinological effects of a menopausal botanical formula”, J Naturopathic Med 7(1), (1998), 73-77

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 158-159.

J. R. Du, X. Kuang, Y. X. Liu, Z. M. Qian, C. Y. Wang, and Y. Yao,  “Neuroprotective role of Z-ligustilide against forebrain ischemic injury in ICR mice”, Brain Res 1102(1), (2006), 145-153

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 225.

R. Fagot, B.Kaplan, C. Kupfersztain, and C. Rotem, “The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report”, Clin Exp Obstet.Gynecol (2003), 30(4), 203-206


B. K. Huang, L. Z. Huang, Q.Ye, and L. P. Qin, “Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus”, J Ethnopharmacol 133(1), (2011), 213-219

B.T. Gaffney, H.M. Hugel, P.A. Rich, “The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes”, Life Sci 70(4), (2001), 431-42

I. J. Dionne, E. D. Goulet, “Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance”, Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15(1), (2005), 75-83

H. D. Smolarz and D Zauski, “Eleutherococcus senticosus - an exemplary adaptogenic plant”, Postepy Fitoterapii Warszawa: Borgis Wydawnictwo Medyczne 9(4), (2008), 240-246

H. K.Chang, C. J. Kim, H. Kim, S. S. Kim, H. H. Lee, T. H. Lee,  Y. T. Rhim, M. C. Shin, , M. S. Shin, S. J. Yoon, “Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats”, J Ethnopharmacol 114(1), (2007), 38-43

J. Daley, “Adaptogens”, J Complement Med 8(1), (2009), 36-38

K. I.  Block, T. Gochenour, C. Gyllenhaal, S. L. Merritt, and S. D. Peterson, “Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders”, Sleep Med Rev 4(3), (2000), 229-251

L. R. Bucci, “Selected herbals and human exercise performance”, Am J Clin Nutr 72(2) (2000), 624S-636S

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 227.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 111-119, 356.

S. Bentler, K. Brake,  Y. Butani,  M. Ernst A. J. Hartz, J. Hoehns, H. Kautzman, C. Logemann,  R. Noyes, S. Sinift, W. Wang, “Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue”, Psychol.Med 34(1), (2004), 51-61

T. Deyama, S. Nishibe, and Y. Nakazawa, “Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng”, Acta Pharmacol Sin. 22(12), (2001), 1057-1070

Fo Ti Root

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 167-168.

H. Choi,  S. C. Kang, J. H. Kwak, C. M. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. S. Oh, O. P. Zee, “Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities”, Phytother.Res  20(11), (2006),1017-1019

J. P. Chen, X. M.Liang,  S. X. Wang, C. Z. Zhang, Y. Zhang, “In vitro estrogenic activities of Chinese medicinal plants traditionally used for the management of menopausal symptoms”, J Ethnopharmacol  98(3), (2005), 295-300

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 229.

R. J Chang, M. Janfaza, Klein K. Oerter, J. A. Wong, “Estrogen bioactivity in fo-ti and other herbs used for their estrogen-like effects as determined by a recombinant cell bioassay”, J Clin Endocrinol.Metab 88(9), (2003), 4077-4079

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 151-153.

Gamma Oryzanol

S. Hieda, M. Ishihara, Y. Ito, T. Maehama, T. Nakakita,  N. Ueno, K. Yamamoto,  “Clinical effect of gamma-oryzanol on climacteric disturbance -on serum lipid peroxides (author's transl)”,  Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 34(2), (1982), 243-251


H. A. Philp, “Hot flashes--a review of the literature on alternative and complementary treatment approaches”, Altern Med Rev 8(3), (2003), 284-302

H. Chiba, Y. Ishimi, K. Kanazawa, R. Masuyama, K. Suzuki,  M. Uehara, X. Wang, J. Wu, “Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits bone loss and decreases serum and hepatic lipids in ovariectomized mice”, J Nutr 133(6), (2003), 1892-1897

L. M. Loscalzo, M. Marder, A. C. Paladini, C. Wasowski, “Opioid receptors are involved in the sedative and antinociceptive effects of hesperidin as well as in its potentiation with benzodiazepines”, Eur J Pharmacol 580(3), (2008), 306-313

S. L. Guzman-Gutierrez, and A. Navarrete, “Pharmacological exploration of the sedative mechanism of hesperidin identified as the active principle of Citrus sinensis flowers” Planta Med 75(4), (2009), 295-301

S. P. Fernandez, L. M. Loscalzo, M. Marder, M. C. Martinez, J. H. Medina, A. C. Paladini, H.Viola, C. Wasowski, “Hesperidin, a flavonoid glycoside with sedative effect, decreases brain pERK1/2 levels in mice”, Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav 92(2), (2009), 291-296

Z. Huang, F. Fang, J. Wang and C. W. Wong, “Structural activity relationship of flavonoids with estrogen-related receptor gamma”, FEBS Lett 584(1), (2010), 22-26

Kudzu Root (Pueraria)

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 234.

V. Chandeying, S.  Lamlertkittikul, “Efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Kruea Khao) for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase II Stud”, J Med Assoc Thai 87(1), (2004), 33-40


Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 158-159.


Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 233.

M. R. Chen, R. Liang, X. Xu, “Effect of dandi tablet on blood lipids and sex hormones in women of postmenopausal stage”, Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi 23(8), (2003), 593-595

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 192-193.

R. Y. Chan, N. Y. Ip,  D. M. Miller-Martini,  S. J. Sheu, Y. H. Wong, “A reporter gene assay for the detection of phytoestrogens in traditional Chinese medicine”, Phytother Res 15(6), (2001), 487-492

Poria Cocos ( Fu ling)

Jose-Luis Rios, “Chemical Constituents and Pharmacolgical Properties of Poria cocos”, Planta Med 77, (2011), 681-691

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 227.


A. Crozier, B. Daneshvar,  L. O. Dragsted, J. Haraldsdottir,  P. Knuthsen, S. T. Lauridsen,  S. E. Nielsen, B. Sandstrom, J. F. Young, “Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status”, Am.J.Clin.Nutr  69(1), (1999), 87-94

B. Stavric, “Quercetin in our diet: from potent mutagen to probable anticarcinogen”, Clin.Biochem. 27(4), (1994), 245-248

W. J. Angerson, M. E.Lean, M. Noroozi, “Effects of flavonoids and vitamin C on oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes", Am J Clin.Nutr 67(6), (1998), 1210-1218


A.M. Gouny, P. Gouny, D. Horovitz, “Effectiveness and safety of hydroxyethyl-rutosides in the local treatment of symptoms of venous insufficiency during air travel”, J Mal Vasc 24(3), (1999), 214-220

G. Hennings, W. Nocker, D Rehn, “Time course of the anti-oedematous effect of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in healthy volunteers”, Eur J Clin Pharmacol 40(6), (1991), 625-627


P.D. Whanger, “Selenocompounds in Plants and Animals and their Biological Significance”, J Am Coll Nutr 21(3), (2002), 223-232

Silica-rich bamboo leaf-Silicon

R. Jugdaosingh, “Silicon and Bone Health”, J Nutr Health Aging 11(2), (2007), 99-110


B.W. Nichols, and B. J.B. Wood, "The occurrence and biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis", Lipids 3(1), (1968), 46-50

E. W. Becker, B. Jakober, D. Luft, and R. M. Schmulling, "Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga Spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study", Nutrition Reports International 33, (1986)

Hala N. ElSohly, Mahmoud A. ElSohly, Nirmal, Pugh, David S. Pasco, and Samir A. Ross,  "Isolation of three high molecular weight polysaccharide preparations with potent immunostimulatory activity from Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Chlorella pyrenoidosa", Planta Medica 67(8), (2001), 737-742

H. N. Chou, C. C. Hsieh, J. J. Hsu, H. K. Lu, Y. K. Yang, “Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress”, Eur J Appl Physiol 98(2), (2006), 220-226

J. Armesto, I. Garcia, R. Gonzalez, N. Ledon, D. Remirez, C. Romay, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue- green algae”, Inflamm.Res 47(1), (1998), 36-41

M. E. Gershwin, T. K. Mao, and J. Van de Water, "Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients", Journal of Medicinal Food 8(1), (2005), 27-30

Parada, J. L., Zulpa, de Caire, Zaccaro de Mule, M. C., and Storni de Cano, M. M, “Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis”, Int J Food Microbiol 45(3), (1998), 225-228

P. Bhadouria, Z. Khan, "Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Spirulina", Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6(5), (2005), 373-379

P.C. Bickford, J. Contreras, C.E. Hudson, J.N. Jernberg,  R.L. Klien, J. Morganti, M.M. Pabon, “A Spirulina-Enhanced Diet Provides Neuroprotection in an α-Synuclein Model of Parkinson’s Disease”, PloS One 7(9), (2012), e45256

P. K. Ghosh, S. Mishra, A. Patel, “Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp”,  Indian J Biochem Biophys  43(1), (2006), 25-31

S. Boussiba, and A. E. Richmond, "C-phycocyanin as a storage protein in the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis", Archives of Microbiology 125(1), (1980), 143-147

T. Inayama, K. Iwata, "Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats", Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 36(2), (1990), 165-171

Wild Yam

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 185-186.

T. Hudson, L. Standish, C. Breed, “Clinical and endocrinological effects of a menopausal botanical formula”, Journal of Naturopathic Medicine 7, (1997), 73-77

Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin

R.A.S. Hemat, Principles of Orthomolecularism (Urotext, 2004), 233.

Sareen S. Gropper and Jack L. Smith, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism (Belmont,CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 356.

Vitamin C

H. Padh, "Vitamin C: Newer Insights into Its Biochemical Functions", Nutrition Reviews 49(3), (1991), 65-70

Lester Packer, “Vitamin C in health and disease”, CRC 5, (1997)

Vitamin D

C. Garland, F. Garland, "Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Colon Cancer: Eight-year prospective study”, The Lancet 334(8673), (1989), 1176-1178

D. E. Cole, H. M. Trang, "Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2", Am J Clin Nutr 68(4), (1998), 854-858

G. Rammos, P. Tseke, "Vitamin D, the renin-angiotensin system, and insulin resistance", International Urology and Nephrology 40(2), (2008), 419-426

Hugo Van Baelen, Roger Bouillon, Marc De Maeyer, Anja Rabijns, Camiel De Ranter, Christel Verboven, “A structural basis for the unique binding features of the human vitamin D-binding protein”, Nature Structural Biology 9(2), (2002), 131-136

J. L. Anderson, H. T. May, "Relation of Vitamin D Deficiency to Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Disease Status, and Incident Events in a General Healthcare Population", The American Journal of Cardiology 106(7), (2010), 963-968

J. Lau, A.G. Pittas, "The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92(6), (2007), 2017-2029

L.A.G. Armas, J. Grote, R.P. Heaney, R.L. Horst, R.R. Recker, “Vitamin D3 is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans”, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Laura A.G. Armas, Robert P. Heaney, Bruce W. Hollis, “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans”, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89(11), (2004), 5387-5391

Lisa A.Houghton, and Reinhold Vieth, "The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(4), (2006), 694-697

M. F. Holick, “Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease", Am J Clin Nutr 80(6), (2004), 1678S-1688S

M. F. Holick, "Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis", Am J Clin Nutr 79(3), (2004), 362-371

Michael F. Holick, “The Vitamin D Epidemic and its Health Consequences”, J Nutr 135, (2005), 2739S-2748S

M. J. Pencina, T. J. Wang, “Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease", Circulation 117(4), (2008), 503-511

Robert P. Heaney, “Lessons for nutritional science from vitamin D”, Am J Clin Nutr 69, (1999), 825-6

Robert P. Heaney, “Vitamin D: Criteria for safety and efficacy”, Nutrition Reviews 66(2), (2008), S178-S181

R. P. Heaney, R. R. Recker, "Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(3), (2011), E447-E452

U. A.Ajani, E. S. Ford, "Concentrations of Serum Vitamin D and the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Adults", Diabetes Care 28(5), (2005), 1228-1230

Y. Liel, E. Ulmer, "Low circulating vitamin D in obesity", Calcif Tissue Int 43(4), (1988), 199-201

Vitamin E, Mixed Tocopherols

H. N. Bhagavan, and R. K. Chopra, "Relative bioavailabilities of natural and synthetic vitamin E formulations containing mixed tocopherols in human subjects", International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 69(2), (1999), 92-95

J. Ju, H. J. Lee, "Mixed Tocopherols Prevent Mammary Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Estrogen Action and Activating PPAR-γ", Clinical Cancer Research 15(12), (2009), 4242-4249

K. Saldeen, and T. Saldeen, "Importance of tocopherols beyond α-tocopherol: evidence from animal and human studies", Nutrition Research 25(10), (2005), 877-889

M. Liu, R. Wallin, "Mixed Tocopherols Have a Stronger Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Peroxidation Than [alpha]-Tocopherol Alone", Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 39(5), (2002), 714-721

N. C. Ward, J. H. Y. Wu, (2007), "Effects of α-Tocopherol and Mixed Tocopherol Supplementation on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes", Clinical Chemistry 53(3), 511-519


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