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Mother to Be™ - Research Citations

M.E. Camilo, R. Lourenco, “Taurine: a conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease”, Nutr Hosp 17(6), (2002), 262-270

P. N. Kirke, A. M. Molloy, "Maternal plasma folate and vitamin B12 are independent risk factors for neural tube defects", QJM 86(11), (1993), 703-708

Ruth Dobson, Gavin Giovannoni, Sreeram Ramagopalan, “The month of birth effect in multiple sclerosis: systematic review, meta-analysis and effect of latitude”, Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry , doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-303934

Beta Carotene

Cristina Palacios, "The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z", Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 46(8), (2006), 621-628

H. Sies and W. Stahl, "Antioxidant activity of carotenoids," Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24(6), (2003), 345-351

James Allen Olson, "Provitamin A function of carotenoids: the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A", The Journal of Nutrition 119(1), (1989), 105

Joseph L Napoli, and Kevin R. Race,"Biogenesis of retinoic acid from beta-carotene. Differences between the metabolism of beta-carotene and retinal", Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33), (1988), 17372-17377

Mark Berneburg, Regina Goralczyk, Eicker, Jörg, Viola Kürten, Jean Krutmann, Georges Riss, and Susanne Wild, "Betacarotene supplementation protects from photoaging-associated mitochondrial DNA mutation", Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2(6), (2003), 655-659

R. Blomstrand, Dew S. Goodman, Helen S. Huang, T. Shiratori and B. Werner, "The intestinal absorption and metabolism of vitamin A and beta-carotene in man", Journal of Clinical Investigation 45(10), (1966), 1615


V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, "Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme q10 following oral supplementation", The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11(2), (2000), 109-113


A. Irwin, M.A. Kenney,  H. McCoy, C. Montgomery, R. Orell, L. Williams, “Relation of Boron to the composition and mechanical properties of bone”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 49-53

C.D. Hunt,”The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 35-43

L. J. Taper, S. L. Volpe, "The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 6(3), (1993), 291-296


H. Inoue, K. Nakamura, S. Yamagishi, “Therapeutic potentials of unicellular green alga Chlorella in advanced glycation end product (AGE)-related disorders”, Med Hypotheses 65(5), (2005), 953-955

J.A. Ho, I. W. Lu, M.C. Shieh, L. C. Wu, “Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Spirulina and Chlorella water extracts”,  J Agric Food Chem 53(10), (2005), 4207-4212

N. Hagino, and S. Ichimura, “Effect of chlorella on fecal and urinary cadmium excretion in "Itai-itai" disease”, Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 30(1), (1975), 77
R. A. Kay, “Microalgae as food and supplement”, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 30(6), (1991), 555-573

S. Otles, and R. Pire, “Fatty acid composition of Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae species”, J.AOAC Int. 84(6), (2001), 1708-1714


K. Schutz, R. Carle, A. Schieber, “Taraxacum--a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile”, J Ethnopharmacol 107(3), (2006), 313-323

Folic Acid

Roth C. Bjørke-Monsen, “Use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy in relation to maternal plasma levels in week 18 of pregnancy”, Mol Nutr Food Res, (2012)


Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 121-122.


H. Bai, B.W. Liu, R. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Meng,  “Inhibitory effect of Isorhamnetin and Hesperidin on LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+”, Zhong.Yao Cai. 30(6), (2007), 677-681

T. L. Cirico, and S. T. Omaye, “Additive or synergetic effects of phenolic compounds on human low density lipoprotein oxidation”, Food Chem Toxico 44(4), (2006), 510-516

High ORAC berry blend

Ronald, L., Sheryl A. Lazarus, Guohua Cao, Helen Muccitelli, and John F. Hammerstone, "Identification of procyanidins and anthocyanins in blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp.) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(3), (2001), 1270-1276

Wang, Shiow Y., and Hsin-Shan Lin, "Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(2), (2000), 140-146

Zheng, Wei, and Shiow Y. Wang, "Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(2), (2003), 502-509


Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C., Fernando E. Viteri, and Lindsay H. Allen, "Iron absorption from ferrous bisglycinate and ferric trisglycinate in whole maize is regulated by iron status", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(6), (2000), 1563-1569

Bothwell, R. W. Charlton, J. D. Cook, Cl A. Finch, Thomas Hamilton, "Iron metabolism in man", Iron Metabolism in Man, (1979)

Melamed, Nir, Avi Ben-Haroush, Boris Kaplan, and Yariv Yogev, "Iron supplementation in pregnancy—does the preparation matter?”, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 276(6), (2007), 601-604

Pineda, Oscar, and H. DeWayne Ashmead, "Effectiveness of treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children with ferrous bis-glycinate chelate", Nutrition 17(5), (2001), 381-384


B. M. Altura and B. T. Altura, “Magnesium and contraction of arterial smooth muscle", Microvascular Research 7(2), (1974), 45-155

Cathleen Carter, Chester Fox, Delano Ramsoomair, “Magnesium: Its Proven and Potential Clinical Significance”, Southern Medical Journal 94(12), (2001)

D. E.Green, “Fatty Acid Oxidation in Soluble Systems of Animal Tissues”, Biological Reviews 29(3),(1954),330-366

D.F. Bohr, “Electrolytes and Smooth Muscle Contraction”, Pharmacological Reviews 16(1), (1964), 85-111

D. Mullikin and L. T. Williams, "Magnesium dependence of agonist binding to adenylate cyclase-coupled hormone receptors", Journal of Biological Chemistry 253(9),(1978), 2984-2989

G. Berg, L. O. Dahle, "The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps", American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 173(1), (1995), 175-180

H. Ebel and T. Günther,“Magnesium Metabolism: A Review”, Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 18(5), (2009), 257-312

L. G. Raisz, "Effect of Phosphate, Calcium and Magnesium on Bone Resorption and Hormonal Responses in Tissue Culture", Endocrinology 85(3),(1969), 446-452

M. E. Morris, "Brain and CSF magnesium concentrations during magnesium deficit in animals and humans: neurological symptoms", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 5(4), (1992), 303-313

T. P. O. Cheng, A. Zhang, "Magnesium regulates intracellular free ionized calcium concentration and cell geometry in vascular smooth muscle cells”, Molecular Cell Research 1134(1), (1992), 25-29

Nettle leaf

Laura Alexander, Natural Wellness Strategies for Pregnancy (EU: Findhorn Press, 2012), 39.

(Red Raspberry leaf and Nettle leaf citation)

Dr. Stacey Rosenberg, Natural Pregnancy, Natural Baby: Natural Remedies for Pregnancy, Birth and Post-Partum Discomforts (US: Xlibris Corporation, 2008), 49.


C. S. Lieber, S. J. Robins, J. M. DeCarli, K. M. Mak, J. M. Fasulo, and M. A. Leo, "Phosphatidylcholine protects against fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon", Gastroenterology 106(1), (1994), 152

Ingrid Kohlstadt, Food and Nutrients in Disease Management (US: CRC Press, 2009), 523

W. Buberl, L. Hausmann, H. Kaffarnik, G. Mühlfellner, O. Mühlfellner, R. Müller,  J. Schneider, R. Schubotz,  “Effect of polyneyl phosphatidyl choline on clofibrate-induced increase in LDL cholesterol”, Eur J Clin Pharmacol 15(1), (1979), 15-9

Raspberry Leaf

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 138-139.

J. Greenwood, M. Parsons, M. Simpson, and K. Wade, “Raspberry leaf in pregnancy: its safety and efficacy in labor”, J Midwifery Womens Health 46(2), (2001), 51-59

M. Parsons, M. Simpson, and K. Wade, “Labour and the raspberry leaf herb”,  Pract.Midwife. 3(9), (2000), 20-23

Red Clover

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 139-140.

G. Th. Kroyer, "Red clover extract as antioxidant active and functional food ingredient", Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 5(1), (2004), 101-105


A.M. Gouny, P. Gouny, D. Horovitz, “Effectiveness and safety of hydroxyethyl-rutosides in the local treatment of symptoms of venous insufficiency during air travel”, J Mal Vasc 24(3), (1999), 214-220

G. Hennings, W. Nocker, D Rehn, “Time course of the anti-oedematous effect of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in healthy volunteers”, Eur J Clin Pharmacol  40(6), (1991), 625-627


P.D. Whanger, “Selenocompounds in Plants and Animals and their Biological Significance”, J Am Coll Nutr 21(3), (2002), 223-232

Silica-rich bamboo leaf-Silicon

R. Jugdaosingh, “Silicon and Bone Health”, J Nutr Health Aging 11(2), (2007), 99-110


B.W. Nichols, and B. J.B. Wood, "The occurrence and biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis", Lipids 3(1), (1968), 46-50

E. W. Becker, B. Jakober, D. Luft, and R. M. Schmulling, "Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga Spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study", Nutrition Reports International 33, (1986)

Hala N. ElSohly, Mahmoud A. ElSohly, Nirmal, Pugh, David S. Pasco, and Samir A. Ross,  "Isolation of three high molecular weight polysaccharide preparations with potent immunostimulatory activity from Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Chlorella pyrenoidosa", Planta Medica 67(8), (2001), 737-742

H. N. Chou, C. C. Hsieh, J. J.Hsu, H. K. Lu, Y. K.Yang, “Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress”, Eur J Appl Physiol  98(2), (2006), 220-226

J.Armesto, I.Garcia, R.Gonzalez, N.Ledon, D.Remirez, C. Romay, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue- green algae”,  Inflamm.Res  47(1), (1998), 36-41

M. E. Gershwin, T. K. Mao, and J. Van de Water, "Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients", Journal of Medicinal Food 8(1), (2005), 27-30

Parada, J. L., Zulpa, de Caire, Zaccaro de Mule, M. C., and Storni de Cano, M. M, “Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis”, Int J Food Microbiol 45(3), (1998), 225-228

P. Bhadouria, Z. Khan, "Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Spirulina", Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6(5), (2005), 373-379

P.C. Bickford, J. Contreras, C.E. Hudson, J.N. Jernberg,  R.L. Klien, J. Morganti, M.M. Pabon,“A Spirulina-Enhanced Diet Provides Neuroprotection in an α-Synuclein Model of Parkinson’s Disease”, PloS One 7(9), (2012), e45256

P. K. Ghosh, S. Mishra, A. Patel, “Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp”,  Indian J Biochem Biophys  43(1), (2006), 25-31

S. Boussiba, and A. E. Richmond, "C-phycocyanin as a storage protein in the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis", Archives of Microbiology 125(1), (1980), 143-147

T. Inayama, K. Iwata, "Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats", Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 36(2), (1990), 165-171

Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin

R.A.S. Hemat, Principles of Orthomolecularism (Urotext, 2004), 233.

Sareen S. Gropper and Jack L. Smith, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism (Belmont,CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 356.

Vitamin C

H. Padh, "Vitamin C: Newer Insights into Its Biochemical Functions", Nutrition Reviews 49(3), (1991), 65-70

Lester Packer, “Vitamin C in health and disease”, CRC 5, (1997)

Vitamin D

Christel Verboven, Anja Rabijns, Marc De Maeyer, Hugo Van Baelen, Roger Bouillon and Camiel De Ranter, “A structural basis for the unique binding features of the human vitamin D-binding protein”, Nature Structural Biology 9(2), (2002), 131-136

D. E. Cole, H. M. Trang, "Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2", Am J Clin Nutr 68(4), (1998), 854-858

E. Hyppönen, E. Läärä, "Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study", The Lancet 358(9292), (2001), 1500-1503

J. A. Owens, H. C. Parkington, M. Tare and E. M. Wintour, “Vitamin D in Pregnancy and Offspring Health Early Life Origins of Health and Disease”, Springer US. 573, (2006) 195-203

L.A.G. Armas, J. Grote, R.P. Heaney, R.L. Horst, R.R. Recker, “Vitamin D3 is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans”, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Laura A.G. Armas, Robert P. Heaney, Bruce W. Hollis, “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans”, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89(11), (2004), 5387-5391

Lisa A.Houghton, and Reinhold Vieth, "The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(4), (2006), 694-697

Michael F. Holick, “The Vitamin D Epidemic and its Health Consequences”, J Nutr 135, (2005), 2739S-2748S

Robert P. Heaney, “Lessons for nutritional science from vitamin D”, Am J Clin Nutr 69, (1999), 825-6

Robert P. Heaney, “Vitamin D: Criteria for safety and efficacy”, Nutrition Reviews 66(2), (2008), S178-S181

R. P. Heaney, R. R. Recker, "Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(3), (2011), E447-E452

Vitamin E, Mixed Tocopherols

H. N. Bhagavan, and R. K. Chopra, "Relative bioavailabilities of natural and synthetic vitamin E formulations containing mixed tocopherols in human subjects", International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 69(2), (1999), 92-95

J. Ju, H. J. Lee, "Mixed Tocopherols Prevent Mammary Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Estrogen Action and Activating PPAR-γ", Clinical Cancer Research 15(12), (2009), 4242-4249

K. Saldeen, and T. Saldeen, "Importance of tocopherols beyond α-tocopherol: evidence from animal and human studies", Nutrition Research 25(10), (2005), 877-889

M. Liu, R. Wallin, "Mixed Tocopherols Have a Stronger Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Peroxidation Than [alpha]-Tocopherol Alone", Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 39(5), (2002), 714-721

N. C. Ward, J. H. Y. Wu, "Effects of α-Tocopherol and Mixed Tocopherol Supplementation on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes", Clinical Chemistry 53(3), (2007), 511-519


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