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Longevity™ Women's Formula - Research Citations

Acetyl L Carnitine

Bruce N. Ames, David W. Killilea, Jiankang Liu, “Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-l- carnitine and/or R-α-lipoic acid”, PNAS 99 (4), (2002), 1876-1881

Bruce N. Ames,  James C. Bartholomew, Hagen, Tory M., Russell T. Ingersoll, Carol M. Wehr, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Vladimir Vinarsky, Mi-Hye Song, "Acetyl-L-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95(16), (1998), 9562-9566

Dhitavat, Sirikarnt, Daniela Ortiz, Eugene Rogers, Ezequiel Rivera, and Thomas B. Shea, "Folate, vitamin E, and acetyl-L-carnitine provide synergistic protection against oxidative stress resulting from exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to amyloid-beta", Brain Research 1061(2), (2005), 114-117

Agaricus blazei

Ahn, W.S., D.J. Kim, G.T. Chae, J.M. Lee, S.M. Bae, J.I. Sin, Y.W. Kim, S.E. Namkoong, and I. P. Lee, "Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy", International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 14(4), (2004), 589-594

Fujimiya, Yoshiaki, Youichi Suzuki, Ko-ichi Oshiman, Hidekazu Kobori, Koichi Moriguchi, Hisako Nakashima, Yonezo Matumoto, Shogo Takahara, Takusaburo Ebina, and Ryuichi Katakura, "Selective tumoricidal effect of soluble proteoglucan extracted from the basidiomycete, Agaricus blazei Murill, mediated via natural killer cell activation and apoptosis", Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 46(3), (1998), 147-159

Mizuno, Masashi, Mikio Morimoto, Ken-ichiro Minato, and Hironobu Tsuchida, "Polysaccharides from Agaricus blazei stimulate lymphocyte T-cell subsets in mice", Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 62(3), (1998), 434-437


Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 100-101.


Eiji Yamashita, "The effects of a dietary supplement containing astaxanthin on skin condition", Food Style 21 9(9), (2005), 72

Homer S. Black, "Radical interception by carotenoids and effects on UV carcinogenesis", (1998), 212-217

H. Nakajima, K. Suganuma, "Astaxanthin attenuates the UVA-induced up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase-1 and skin fibroblast elastase in human dermal fibroblasts", Journal of Dermatological Science, (2010)

Iwamoto, Tamami, Kazuaki Hosoda, Reiko Hirano, Hideaki Kurata, Akiyo Matsumoto, Wataru Miki, Masumi Kamiyama, Hiroshige Itakura, Shigeru Yamamoto, and Kazuo Kondo, "Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by astaxanthin", Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 7(4), (2000), 216

N. I. Krinsky, P. Palozza, "Astaxanthin and canthaxanthin are potent antioxidants in a membrane model", Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 297(2, (1992), 291-295

Y. M. A. Naguib, "Antioxidant Activities of Astaxanthin and Related Carotenoids", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(4), (2000), 1150-1154

Atractylodes (Pai Shu)

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 232.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 197, 368.

Beta Carotene

Cristina Palacios, "The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z", Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 46(8), (2006), 621-628

H. Sies, and W. Stahl, "Antioxidant activity of carotenoids", Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24(6), (2003), 345-351

James Allen Olson, "Provitamin A function of carotenoids: the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A", The Journal of Nutrition 119(1), (1989), 105

Joseph L Napoli, and Kevin R. Race, "Biogenesis of retinoic acid from beta-carotene. Differences between the metabolism of beta-carotene and retinol", Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33), (1988), 17372-17377

Mark Berneburg, Regina Goralczyk, Eicker, Jörg, Viola Kürten, Jean Krutmann, Georges Riss, and Susanne Wild, "Betacarotene supplementation protects from photoaging-associated mitochondrial DNA mutation", Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2(6), (2003), 655-659

R. Blomstrand, Dew S. Goodman, Helen S. Huang, T. Shiratori and B. Werner, "The intestinal absorption and metabolism of vitamin A and beta-carotene in man", Journal of Clinical Investigation 45(10), (1966), 1615


V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, "Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme q10 following oral supplementation", The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11(2), (2000), 109-113


A. Irwin, M.A. Kenney,  H. McCoy, C. Montgomery, R. Orell, L. Williams, “Relation of Boron to the composition and mechanical properties of bone”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 49-53

C.D. Hunt, J.R. Hunt, L.M. Mullen, F.H. Nielsen, ”Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women”, FASEB J  1(5), (1987), 394-7

C.D. Hunt,”The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 35-43

L. J. Taper, S. L. Volpe, "The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 6(3), (1993), 291-296

Chasteberry (Vitex)

C Lauritzen, R Repges, H.D. Reuter, “Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex angus castus: Controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine”, Phytomedicine 4(3), (1997), 183-189

D Berger, W Schaffner, E Schrader, “Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre- menstrual syndrome (PMS)”, Arch Gynecol Obstet 264(3), (2000),150-153

M. Albrecht, C. Peters-Welte, “Menstrual abnormalities and PMS. Vitex agnus-castus in a study of application”, Therapiewoche Gynakologie 7(1), (1994), 49-52

M. Atmaca, S. Kumru, E. Tezcan, “Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder”, Hum Psychopharmacol 18(3), (2003), 191-195

R. Schellenberg “Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study”, BMJ 322(7279), (2001), 134-137

S. Mills, S. Turner, “A double-blind clinical trial on a herbal remedy for premenstrual syndrome: a case study”, Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1(2), (1993), 73-77


De Vogel, Johan, Denise SML Jonker-Termont, Esther MM Van Lieshout, Martijn B. Katan, and Roelof Van Der Meer, "Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon", Carcinogenesis 26(2), (2005), 387-393

Fahey, Jed W., Katherine K. Stephenson, Albena T. Dinkova-Kostova, Patricia A. Egner, Thomas W. Kensler, and Paul Talalay, "Chlorophyll, chlorophyllin and related tetrapyrroles are significant inducers of mammalian phase 2 cytoprotective genes", Carcinogenesis 26(7), (2005), 1247-1255


D. Bagchi, S. J. Stohs, "Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium", Toxicology 180(1), (2002), 5-22

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, "Effects of chromium on the immune system", FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 34(1), (2002), 1-7

Citrus Peel

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 224.

Cnidium- Chinese Lovage

Michael Tierra, The way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 224-225.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 198-199, 365.


J. Choi, H. J. Jung, W. T. Jung, K. T. Lee,  J. H. Nam, H. J. Park, “Structure of a new echinocystic acid bisdesmoside isolated from Codonopsis lanceolata roots and the cytotoxic activity of prosapogenins”, J Agric.Food Chem 50(15), (2002), 4190-4193

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 226.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 157-159, 358.

Y. Chen, N. Liang, J. Wei, Y. Zhu, “Chemical components of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch) Nannf. var volubilis (Nannf.) L.T. Shen”, Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi 20(10), (1995), 611-640


Christopher Hobbs, Medicinal Mushrooms (California: Botanica Press, 1986), 81-86.

G. M. Halpern, K. Jones, J. S. Zhu, “The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II”, J.Altern.Complement Med 4(4), 1998, 429-457

Lu, Zhu Lingyuan Fang, "Studies on the Nourshing and Strengthening Effects of Cordyceps”, Acta Academiae Medicinae Jiangxi 3, (1997)

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 129-133.

T. B. Ng, and H. X. Wang, “Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine”, J Pharm Pharmacol 57(12), (2005), 1509-1519

Xiao, Y, Huang, XZ, Cheng, G, “Increased aerobic capacity in healthy elderly human adults given a fermentation product of Cordyceps Cs-4”, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31(Suppl), (1999), S174


A. H. Chow, K. K. Chu, S. S. Ho, "Coriolus versicolor: a medicinal mushroom with promising immunotherapeutic values", The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 42(9), (2002), 976-984

Cui, Jian, and Yusuf Chisti, "Polysaccharopeptides of Coriolus versicolor: physiological activity, uses, and production", Biotechnology Advances 21(2), (2003), 109-122

Curcumin (Turmeric)

S. Julie, M. T. Jurenka, "Anti-inflammatory Properties of Curcumin, a Major Constituent", Alternative Medicine Review 14(2), (2009)

Dong Quai (Angelica)

A.  Fugh-Berman, and F. Kronenberg, “Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials”, Ann Intern Med 137(10), (2002), 805-813

B. Kaplan, and C. Rotem, “Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study”, Gynecol.Endocrinol 23(2), (2007), 117-122

C. Breed, T.S. Hudson, L. Standish, “Clinical and endocrinological effects of a menopausal botanical formula”, J Naturopathic Med 7(1), (1998), 73-77

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 158-159.

J. R. Du, X. Kuang, Y. X. Liu, Z. M. Qian, C. Y. Wang, and Y. Yao,  “Neuroprotective role of Z-ligustilide against forebrain ischemic injury in ICR mice”, Brain Res 1102(1), (2006), 145-153

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 225.

R. Fagot, B.Kaplan, C. Kupfersztain, and C. Rotem, “The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report”, Clin Exp Obstet.Gynecol (2003), 30(4), 203-206

Folic Acid

Roth C. Bjørke-Monsen, “Use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy in relation to maternal plasma levels in week 18 of pregnancy”, Mol Nutr Food Res, (2012)


Aisa, Yoshinobu, Yoshitaka Miyakawa, Tomonori Nakazato, Hideyuki Shibata, Kaori Saito, Yasuo Ikeda, and Masahiro Kizaki, "Fucoidan induces apoptosis of human HS-Sultan cells accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of ERK Pathways", American Journal of Hematology 78(1), (2005), 7-14

Choi, Eun-Mi, Ah-Jin Kim, Yeon-O. Kim, and Jae-Kwan Hwang, "Immunomodulating activity of arabinogalactan and fucoidan in vitro", Journal of Medicinal Food 8(4), (2005), 446-453

Hong, Sang-Won, Hee-Seung Lee, Kyung Hee Jung, Hyunseung Lee, and Soon-Sun Hong, "Protective effect of fucoidan against acetaminophen-induced liver injury", Archives of Pharmacal Research 35(6), (2012), 1099-1105

Itoh, Hiroko, H. Noda, H. Amano, C. Zhuaug, T. Mizuno, and H. Ito, "Antitumor activity and immunological properties of marine algal polysaccharides, especially fucoidan, prepared from Sargassum thunbergii of Phaeophyceae", Anticancer Research 13(6A), (1993), 2045

Lee, Jung-Bum, Kyoko Hayashi, Minoru Hashimoto, Takahisa Nakano, and Toshimitsu Hayashi, "Novel antiviral fucoidan from sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida (Mekabu)", Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 52(9), (2004), 1091-1094

Murphy, Vanessa, Syed AM Tofail, Helen Hughes, and Peter McLoughlin, "A novel study of hexavalent chromium detoxification by selected seaweed species using SEM-EDX and XPS analysis", Chemical Engineering Journal 148(2), (2009), 425-433

Gamma Oryzanol

S. Hieda, M. Ishihara, Y. Ito, T. Maehama, T. Nakakita,  N. Ueno, K. Yamamoto,  “Clinical effect of gamma-oryzanol on climacteric disturbance -on serum lipid peroxides (author's transl)”,  Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 34(2), (1982), 243-251

R. Accinni, F. Bamonti, F. Bernacchi, J. Campolo, R.Caruso, A. Ciani, Della, S. Ippolito, L.Ghersi, M. Gorini, S. Grossi, S. Lonati, E. Lorenzano,  C. Noce, C. Novembrino,  M. Rosina, A. Tonini,  “Effects of combined dietary supplementation on oxidative and inflammatory status in dyslipidemic subjects”,  Nutr Metab Cardiovasc.Dis. 16(2), (2006), 121-127

German Chamomile

H. Viola, C. Wasowski, de Stein Levi,  C. Wolfman, R. Silveira, R. Dajas,  J. H. Medina and A. C. Paladini, “Apigenin, a component of Matricaria recutita flowers, is a central benzodiazepine receptors-ligand with anxiolytic effects”, Planta Med 61(3), (1995), 213-216

U. Simmen, O. Kelber, S. N. Okpanyi, R. Jaeggi, B. Bueter, and D. Weiser, “Binding of STW 5 (Iberogast) and its components to intestinal 5-HT, muscarinic M3, and opioid receptors”, Phytomedicine 13(5), (2006), 51-55


H. Bai, B.W. Liu, R. Liu, Y. Liu, F. Meng, “Inhibitory effect of Isorhamnetin and Hesperidin on LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+”, Zhong.Yao Cai. 30(6), (2007), 677-681

T. L. Cirico, and S. T. Omaye, “Additive or synergetic effects of phenolic compounds on human low density lipoprotein oxidation”, Food Chem Toxico 44(4), (2006), 510-516

High ORAC berry blend

Ronald, L., Sheryl A. Lazarus, Guohua Cao, Helen Muccitelli, and John F. Hammerstone, "Identification of procyanidins and anthocyanins in blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp.) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(3), (2001), 1270-1276

Wang, Shiow Y., and Hsin-Shan Lin, "Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(2), (2000), 140-146

Zheng, Wei, and Shiow Y. Wang, "Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(2), (2003), 502-509


C. Gennari, “Effect of ipriflavone- a synthetic derivative of natural isoflavones- on bone mass loss in the early years after menopause”, Menopause 5, (1998), 9-15

C.L. Dong, J. Du, S.W. Li,  J.F. Wu, X. Zhang, Y.P. Zhang, “Effects of ipriflavone on postmenopausal syndrome and osteoporosis”, Gynecol Endocrinol 11, (2009), 1-5

D. Agnusdei, “A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal spinal bone loss”, Calcification Tissue Int’l 61, (1997), 142-7

K. Kitatani, H. Morii, “Ipriflavone”, Nippon Rinsho 56(6), (1998), 1537-43

S. Adami, L. Bufalino, R. Cervetti, C. Di Marco, O. Di Munno, L. Fantasia, G.C. Isaia, U. Serni, L. Vecchiet, M. Passeri, “Ipriflavone prevents radial bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass over 2 years”,  Osteoporos Int  7(2), (1997),119-25

S. Benvenuti, “Effects of ipriflavone and its metabolites on a clonal osteoblastic cell line”, J Bone Miner Res 6, (1991), 987-96

Kudzu Root Pueraria

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 234.

S.  Lamlertkittikul, and V. Chandeying, “Efficacy and safety of Pueraria mirifica (Kwao Kruea Khao) for the treatment of vasomotor symptoms in perimenopausal women: Phase II Stud”, J Med Assoc Thai 87(1), (2004), 33-40

L- Carnosine

A. A. Boldyrev, S. E. Severin, “The histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine: distribution, properties and biological significance”, Adv.Enzyme Regul.30, (1990), 175-194

M. R. Garrett, G. Perry, V. P. Reddy, M. A. Smith, “Carnosine: a versatile antioxidant and antiglycating agent”, Sci Aging Knowledge.Environ (18), (2005), e12

Y. Guo, H. Yan, “Preventive effect of carnosine on cataract development”, Yan.Ke.Xue.Bao 22(2), (2006), 85-88

Lemon Peel

Miyake, Yoshiaki, Kanefumi Yamamoto, Yasujiro Morimitsu, and Toshihiko Osawa, "Isolation of C-glucosylflavone from lemon peel and antioxidative activity of flavonoid compounds in lemon fruit", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45(12), (1997), 4619-4623

Longan Berries

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 231.


G. Aldini, E. J. Johnson, K. Kraemer, N. N. I. Krinsky, Musaeus, H. Rasmussen, R. M. Russell, H. Woolf,  K. J. Yeum, X. Zhao, “Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women”, Am J Clin Nutr 83(1), (2006),163-169

P. Morganti, G. Fabrizi, and C. Bruno, “Protective effects of oral antioxidants on skin and eye function”, Skinmed 3(6), (2004), 310-316


C. Liu, J. L. Zhu, “Modulating effects of extractum semen Persicae and cultivated Cordyceps hyphae on immuno-dysfunction of inpatients with posthepatitic cirrhosis”,  Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 12(4), (1992), 207-9, 195

Y. Y. Hu, C. Liu, P. Liu, “Effect of fuzheng huayu recipe in treating posthepatitic cirrhosis”, Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi 16(8), (1996), 459-462


Paola Borella, Fabio Facchinetti, Loredana Fioroni, Andrea R. Genazzani, Rossella E. Nappi, Grazia Sances, “Oral Magnesium Successfully Relieves Premenstrual Mood Changes”, Obstetrics & Gynecology 78(2), (1991), 177-181


M. A. Beilke, C. Collins-Lech, and P.G. Sohnle, “Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the oxidative function of human neutrophils”, J Lab Clin Med, 110(1), (1987), 91-96


G. Atmaca, “Antioxidant effects of sulfur-containing amino acids”, Yonsei Med J 45(5), (2004), 776-88

S. Parcell, “Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine”, Altern Med Rev 7(1), (2002), 22-44

N-Acetyl- Cysteine

Aruoma, Okezie I., Barry Halliwell, Brigid M. Hoey, and John Butler, "The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid", Free radical biology & medicine 6(6), (1989), 593

M.M. Arons, G.R. Bernard, P.E. Morris, H.L. Paz, J.A. Russell, A.P. Wheeler, P.E. Wright, “A trial of antioxidants N-Acetylcysteine and procysteine in ARDS. The Antioxidant in ARDS Study Group”, Chest 112(1), (1997), 164-72

O. Beloqui, M.P. Civeira, N. Garcia, B. Gil, J. Prieto, C.H. Qian, M. Suarez, “N-acetly cysteine enhances the response to interferon-alpha in chronic hepatitis C: a pilot study”,
J Interferon Res. 13(4), (1993), 279-82

S.M. Alavian, F. Babaei, F. Dermanaki, M. Shohrati, “Evaluation of the effects of oral N-acetylcysteine and a placebo in paraclinical and oxidative stress parameters of patients with chronic hepatits B”, Hepat Mon. 10(2), (2010), 95-100 


Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 233.

R. Liang, M. R. Chen, and X. Xu, “Effect of dandi tablet on blood lipids and sex hormones in women of postmenopausal stage”, Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi 23(8), (2003), 593-595

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 192-193.

R. Y.Chan, N. Y. Ip, D. M. Miller-Martini, S. J. Sheu, and Y. H. Wong, “A reporter gene assay for the detection of phytoestrogens in traditional Chinese medicine”,  Phytother Res 15(6), (2001), 487-492


C. S. Lieber, S. J. Robins, J. M. DeCarli, K. M. Mak, J. M. Fasulo, and M. A. Leo, "Phosphatidylcholine protects against fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon", Gastroenterology 106(1), (1994), 152

Ingrid Kohlstadt, Food and Nutrients in Disease Management (US: CRC Press, 2009), 523

W. Buberl, L. Hausmann, H. Kaffarnik, G. Mühlfellner, O. Mühlfellner, R. Müller,  J. Schneider, R. Schubotz,  “Effect of polyneyl phosphatidylcholine on clofibrate-induced increase in LDL cholesterol”, Eur J Clin Pharmacol 15(1), (1979), 15-9


A. Crozier, B. Daneshvar, L. O. Dragsted, J. Haraldsdottir, P. Knuthsen,  S.T.  Lauridsen, S. E. Nielsen, B. Sandstrom and J. F. Young, “Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status”, Am J Clin Nutr 69(1), (1999), 87-94

B. Stavric,“Quercetin in our diet: from potent mutagen to probable anticarcinogen”, Clin.Biochem 27(4), (1994), 245-248

W. J. Angerson, M. E. Lean, and M .Noroozi, “Effects of flavonoids and vitamin C on oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes”, Am J Clin.Nutr. 67(6), (1998), 1210-1218

R-alpha lipoic acid

Bruce N. Ames, David W. Killilea, Jiankang Liu, “Age-associated mitochondrial oxidative decay: Improvement of carnitine acetyltransferase substrate-binding affinity and activity in brain by feeding old rats acetyl-l- carnitine and/or R-α-lipoic acid”, PNAS 99 (4), (2002), 1876-1881

Bruce N. Ames, Ludmila A., Jiankang Liu, Sheldon S. Miller,  Jung H. Suh,  Voloboueva, "(R)-α-Lipoic acid protects retinal pigment epithelial cells from oxidative damage”, Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46(11), (2005), 4302-4310

G.P.Biewenga, M.A. Dorstijn,“Reduction of lipoic acid by lipoamide dehydrogenase” , Biochem Pharmacol 51(3), (1996), 233-238

H.O. Borbe, R. Hermann, G. Niebch, “Enantioselective pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of different racemic a-lipoic acid formulations in healthy volunteers”, Eur J Pharm Sci. 4, (1996), 167-174

I. Maitra L. Packer. E. Serbinova, H.J. Tritschler, “Stereospecific effects of R-lipoic acid on buthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats”, Biochem Biophys Res Commun 221(2), (1996), 422-429

R.S. Streeper, E.J. Henriksen, S. Jacob, J.Y. Hokama, D.L. Fogt, H.J. Tritschler, “Differential effects of lipoic acid stereoisomers on glucose metabolism in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle”,  Am J Physiol   273(1 Pt 1), (1997), E185-191

Raspberry Leaf

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 138-139.

Dr. Stacey Rosenberg, Natural Pregnancy, Natural Baby: Natural Remedies for Pregnancy, Birth and Post-Partum Discomforts (US: Xlibris Corporation, 2008), 49.

J. Greenwood, M. Parsons, M. Simpson, and K. Wade, “Raspberry leaf in pregnancy: its safety and efficacy in labor”, J Midwifery Womens Health 46(2), (2001), 51-59.

M. Parsons, M. Simpson, and K. Wade, “Labour and the raspberry leaf herb”, Pract.Midwife 3(9), (2000), 20-23


Christopher Hobbs, Medicinal Mushrooms (California: Botanica Press, 1986), 96-107.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 88-95, 361.


A.M. Gouny, P. Gouny, D. Horovitz, “Effectiveness and safety of hydroxyethyl-rutosides in the local treatment of symptoms of venous insufficiency during air travel”, J Mal Vasc 24(3), (1999), 214-220

G. Hennings, W. Nocker, D Rehn, “Time course of the anti-oedematous effect of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in healthy volunteers”, Eur J Clin Pharmacol 40(6), (1991), 625-627

Selenium (L-methyl selenocysteine)

J. Liu, G. Luo, “Selenoproteins and Thyroid Cancer:
Selenoproteins and Mimics”, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, (2012), 173-182

P. D. Whanger,”Selenium and its relationship to cancer: an update”, British Journal of Nutrition, 91, (2004), 11-28

P.D. Whanger, “Selenocompounds in Plants and Animals and their Biological Significance”, J Am Coll Nutr 21(3), (2002), 223-232


B. Imre, F. Janos, Y. Kaneko, V. Karoly, and G. Peter, “Effects of lentinan on cytotoxic functions of human lymphocytes”, Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol 10(2), (1988), 157-163

Christopher Hobbs, Medicinal Mushrooms (California: Botanica Press, 1986), 125-138.

G. D.Bonnard, J. P. Fruehauf, and R. B. Herberman, “The effect of lentinan on production of interleukin-1 by human monocytes”, Immunopharmacology 5(1), (1982), 65-74

J. K.Candlish, G. M. Sia, “Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line”, Phytother.Res. 13(2), (1999), 133-137

T. Aoki, H. Miyakoshi “Acting mechanisms of Lentinan in human--I. Augmentation of DNA synthesis and immunoglobulin production of peripheral mononuclear cells”, Int.J.Immunopharmacol 6(4), (1984), 365-371

X. F. Huang, J. W. Guo, and J. F. Li, “Study on the enhancing effect of polyporus polysaccharide, mycobacterium polysaccharide and lentinan on lymphokine-activated killer cell activity in vitro”,  Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 16(4), (1996), 224-226

Y. Gao, F. Kong, J. Li, J. Lin, M. Liu, “Induction of immunomodulating cytokines by a new polysaccharide-peptide complex from culture mycelia of Lentinus edodes”, Immunopharmacology 40(3), (1998), 187-198

Silica-rich bamboo leaf-Silicon
R. Jugdaosingh, “Silicon and Bone Health”, J Nutr Health Aging 11(2), (2007), 99-110


B.W. Nichols, and B. J.B. Wood, "The occurrence and biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis", Lipids 3(1), (1968), 46-50

E. W. Becker, B. Jakober, D. Luft, and R. M. Schmulling, "Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga Spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study", Nutrition Reports International 33, (1986)

Hala N. ElSohly, Mahmoud A. ElSohly, Nirmal, Pugh, David S. Pasco, and Samir A. Ross,  "Isolation of three high molecular weight polysaccharide preparations with potent immunostimulatory activity from Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Chlorella pyrenoidosa", Planta Medica 67(8), (2001), 737-742

H. N. Chou, C. C. Hsieh, J. J.Hsu, H. K. Lu, Y. K.Yang, “Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress”, Eur J Appl Physiol  98(2), (2006), 220-226

J.Armesto, I.Garcia, R.Gonzalez, N.Ledon, D.Remirez, C. Romay, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue- green algae”,  Inflamm.Res  47(1), (1998), 36-41

M. E. Gershwin, T. K. Mao, and J. Van de Water, "Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients", Journal of Medicinal Food 8(1), (2005), 27-30

Parada, J. L., Zulpa, de Caire, Zaccaro de Mule, M. C., and Storni de Cano, M. M, “Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis”, Int J Food Microbiol 45(3), (1998), 225-228

P. Bhadouria, Z. Khan, "Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Spirulina", Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6(5), (2005), 373-379

P.C. Bickford, J. Contreras, C.E. Hudson, J.N. Jernberg,  R.L. Klien, J. Morganti, M.M. Pabon,“A Spirulina-Enhanced Diet Provides Neuroprotection in an α-Synuclein Model of Parkinson’s Disease”, PloS One 7(9), (2012), e45256

P. K. Ghosh, S. Mishra, A. Patel, “Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp”,  Indian J Biochem Biophys  43(1), (2006), 25-31

S. Boussiba, and A. E. Richmond, "C-phycocyanin as a storage protein in the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis", Archives of Microbiology 125(1), (1980), 143-147

T. Inayama, K. Iwata, "Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats", Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 36(2), (1990), 165-171

Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin

R.A.S. Hemat, Principles of Orthomolecularism (Urotext, 2004), 233.

Sareen S. Gropper and Jack L. Smith, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism (Belmont,CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 356.

Vitamin C

H. Padh, "Vitamin C: Newer Insights into Its Biochemical Functions", Nutrition Reviews 49(3), (1991), 65-70

Lester Packer, “Vitamin C in health and disease”, CRC 5, (1997)

VC Camu Camu

A. Z. Mercadante, and C. F. Zanatta, "Carotenoid composition from the Brazilian tropical fruit camu–camu (Myrciaria dubia)", Food Chemistry 101(4), (2007), 1526-1532

Florinda O. Bobbio, Elyana Cuevas, Cinthia Fernanda, Adriana Z. Mercadante, Peter Winterhalter, and Zanatta,  "Determination of anthocyanins from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) by HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS, and NMR", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53(24), (2005),  9531-9535

Inoue, Hiroshi Komoda, Koichi Node, Teruo, Toshihiko Uchida, "Tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties", Journal of Cardiology 52(2), (2008), 127

J.-P. Dufour, and S. M. Zapata, “Camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (HBK) McVaugh: Chemical composition of fruit", Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 61(3), (1993), 349-351

Vitamin D

C. Garland, F. Garland, "Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Colon Cancer: Eight-Year Prospective Study”, The Lancet 334(8673), (1989), 1176-1178

D. E. Cole, H. M. Trang, "Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2", Am J Clin Nutr 68(4), (1998), 854-858

G. Rammos, P. Tseke, "Vitamin D, the renin-angiotensin system, and insulin resistance", International Urology and Nephrology 40(2), (2008), 419-426

Hugo Van Baelen, Roger Bouillon, Marc De Maeyer, Anja Rabijns,  Camiel De Ranter, Christel Verboven, “A structural basis for the unique binding features of the human vitamin D-binding protein”, Nature Structural Biology 9(2), (2002), 131-136 

J. L. Anderson, H. T. May, "Relation of Vitamin D Deficiency to Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Disease Status, and Incident Events in a General Healthcare Population", The American Journal of Cardiology 106(7), (2010), 963-968

J. Lau, A.G. Pittas," The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92(6), (2007), 2017-2029

L.A.G. Armas, J. Grote, R.P. Heaney, R.L. Horst, R.R. Recker, “Vitamin D3 is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans”, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Laura A.G. Armas, Robert P. Heaney, Bruce W. Hollis, “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans”, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89(11), (2004), 5387-5391

Lisa A.Houghton, and Reinhold Vieth, "The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(4), (2006), 694-697

M. F. Holick, “Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease", Am J Clin Nutr 80(6), (2004), 1678S-1688S

M. F. Holick, "Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis", Am J Clin Nutr 79(3), (2004), 362-371

Michael F. Holick, “The Vitamin D Epidemic and its Health Consequences”, J Nutr 135, (2005), 2739S-2748S

M. J. Pencina, T. J. Wang, “Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease", Circulation 117(4), (2008), 503-511

Robert P. Heaney, “Lessons for nutritional science from vitamin D”, Am J Clin Nutr 69, (1999), 825-6

Robert P. Heaney, “Vitamin D: Criteria for safety and efficacy”, Nutrition Reviews 66(2), (2008), S178-S181

R. P. Heaney, R. R. Recker, "Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(3), (2011), E447-E452

U. A.Ajani, E. S. Ford, "Concentrations of Serum Vitamin D and the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Adults", Diabetes Care 28(5), (2005), 1228-1230

Y. Liel, E. Ulmer, "Low circulating vitamin D in obesity", Calcif Tissue Int 43(4), (1988), 199-201

Vitamin E, Mixed Tocopherols:

H. N. Bhagavan, and R. K. Chopra, "Relative bioavailabilities of natural and synthetic vitamin E formulations containing mixed tocopherols in human subjects", International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 69(2), (1999), 92-95

J. Ju, H. J. Lee, "Mixed Tocopherols Prevent Mammary Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Estrogen Action and Activating PPAR-γ", Clinical Cancer Research 15(12), (2009), 4242-4249

K. Saldeen, and T. Saldeen, "Importance of tocopherols beyond α-tocopherol: evidence from animal and human studies", Nutrition Research 25(10), (2005), 877-889

M. Liu, R. Wallin, "Mixed Tocopherols Have a Stronger Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Peroxidation Than [alpha]-Tocopherol Alone", Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 39(5), (2002), 714-721

N. C. Ward, J. H. Y. Wu, "Effects of α-Tocopherol and Mixed Tocopherol Supplementation on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes", Clinical Chemistry 53(3), (2007), 511-519


Bhosale, Prakash, and Paul S. Bernstein, "Synergistic effects of zeaxanthin and its binding protein in the prevention of lipid membrane oxidation", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease 1740(2), (2005), 116-121


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