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LifeEssence™ Women's Formula - Research Citations

Alpha Lipoic Acid

L. Packer, E. H. Witt, "Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant", Free Radical Biology and Medicine 19(2), (1995), 227-250

Atractylodes (Pai Shu)

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 232.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 197, 368.

Beta Carotene

Cristina Palacios, "The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z", Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 46(8), (2006), 621-628

H. Sies, and W. Stahl, "Antioxidant activity of carotenoids", Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24(6), (2003), 345-351

James Allen Olson, "Provitamin A function of carotenoids: the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A", The Journal of Nutrition 119(1), (1989), 105

Joseph L Napoli, and Kevin R. Race, "Biogenesis of retinoic acid from beta-carotene. Differences between the metabolism of beta-carotene and retinol", Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33), (1988), 17372-17377

 Mark Berneburg, Regina Goralczyk, Eicker, Jörg, Viola Kürten, Jean Krutmann, Georges Riss, and Susanne Wild, "Betacarotene supplementation protects from photoaging-associated mitochondrial DNA mutation", Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2(6), (2003), 655-659

R. Blomstrand, Dew S. Goodman, Helen S. Huang, T. Shiratori and B. Werner, "The intestinal absorption and metabolism of vitamin A and beta-carotene in man", Journal of Clinical Investigation 45(10), (1966), 1615


V. Badmaev, M. Majeed, "Piperine derived from black pepper increases the plasma levels of coenzyme q10 following oral supplementation", The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 11(2), (2000), 109-113


A. Irwin, M.A. Kenney,  H. McCoy, C. Montgomery, R. Orell, L. Williams, “Relation of Boron to the composition and mechanical properties of bone”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 49-53

C.D. Hunt, J.R. Hunt, L.M. Mullen, F.H. Nielsen, ”Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women”, FASEB J  1(5), (1987), 394-7

C.D. Hunt,”The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 35-43

L. J. Taper, S. L. Volpe, "The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 6(3), (1993), 291-296

Calcium D-Glucarate

A. K. Adams, M. Hanausek, U. Sherman, Z. Walaszek, "Antiproliferative effect of dietary glucarate on the Sprague-Dawley rat mammary gland", Cancer letters 49(1), (1990), 51-57

Walaszek, Zbigniew, Malgorzata Hanausek-Walaszek, John P. Minton, and Thomas E. Webb, "Dietary glucarate as anti-promoter of 7, 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis", Carcinogenesis 7(9), (1986), 1463-1466

Chaste berry (Vitex)

C. Lauritzen, R. Repges, H.D. Reuter, “Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex angus castus: Controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine”, Phytomedicine 4(3), (1997), 183-189

D. Berger, W. Schaffner, E. Schrader, “Efficacy of Vitex agnus castus L. extract Ze 440 in patients with pre- menstrual syndrome (PMS)”, Arch Gynecol Obstet 264(3), (2000),150-153

M. Albrecht, C. Peters-Welte, “Menstrual abnormalities and PMS. Vitex agnus-castus in a study of application”, Therapiewoche Gynakologie 7(1), (1994), 49-52

M. Atmaca, S. Kumru, E. Tezcan, “Fluoxetine versus Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder”, Hum Psychopharmacol 18(3), (2003), 191-195

R. Schellenberg, “Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomised, placebo controlled study”, BMJ 322(7279), (2001), 134-137

S. Mills, S. Turner, “A double-blind clinical trial on a herbal remedy for premenstrual syndrome: a case study”, Complementary Therapies in Medicine 1(2), (1993), 73-77


H. Inoue, K. Nakamura, S. Yamagishi, “Therapeutic potentials of unicellular green alga Chlorella in advanced glycation end product (AGE)-related disorders”, Med Hypotheses 65(5), (2005), 953-955

J.A. Ho, I. W. Lu, M.C. Shieh, L. C. Wu, “Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Spirulina and Chlorella water extracts”,  J Agric.Food Chem 53(10), (2005), 4207-4212

N. Hagino, and S. Ichimura, “Effect of chlorella on fecal and urinary cadmium excretion in "Itai-itai" disease”, Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 30(1), (1975), 77
R. A. Kay, “Microalgae as food and supplement”, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 30(6), (1991), 555-573

S. Otles, and R. Pire, “Fatty acid composition of Chlorella and Spirulina microalgae species”, J.AOAC Int. 84(6), (2001), 1708-1714


D. Bagchi, S. J. Stohs, "Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium", Toxicology 180(1), (2002), 5-22

R. Shrivastava, R. K. Upreti, "Effects of chromium on the immune system", FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology 34(1), (2002), 1-7


J. Choi, H. J. Jung, W. T. Jung, K. T. Lee,  J. H. Nam, H. J. Park, “Structure of a new echinocystic acid bisdesmoside isolated from Codonopsis lanceolata roots and the cytotoxic activity of prosapogenins”, J Agric.Food Chem 50(15), (2002), 4190-4193

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 226.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 157-159, 358.

Y. Chen, N. Liang, J. Wei, Y. Zhu, “Chemical components of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch) Nannf. var volubilis (Nannf.) L.T. Shen”, Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi 20(10), (1995), 611-640


Christopher Hobbs, Medicinal Mushrooms (California: Botanica Press, 1986), 81-86.

G. M. Halpern, K. Jones, J. S. Zhu, “The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II”, J.Altern.Complement Med 4(4), 1998, 429-457

Lu, Zhu Lingyuan Fang, "Studies on the Nourshing and Strengthening Effects of Cordyceps", Acta Academiae Medicinae Jiangxi 3, (1997)

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 129-133.

T. B. Ng, and H. X. Wang, “Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine”, J Pharm Pharmacol 57(12), (2005), 1509-1519

Xiao, Y, Huang, XZ, Cheng, G, “Increased aerobic capacity in healthy elderly human adults given a fermentation product of Cordyceps Cs-4”, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31(Suppl), (1999), S174


D. Malejka-Giganti, D. R. Parkin,“Differences in the hepatic P450-dependent metabolism of estrogen and tamoxifen in response to treatment of rats with 3,3'-diindolylmethane and its parent compound indole-3-carbinol”, Cancer Detect Prev (2004), 28(1), 72-79

L. F. Bjeldanes, G. H. Chang, Y. C. Chang, G. Firestone, B. C. Peng, J. Riby, “Cytostatic and antiestrogenic effects of 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)-3,3'-diindolylmethane, a major in vivo product of dietary indole-3-carbinol” Biochem.Pharmacol 58(5), (1999), 825-834

L F. Bjeldanes, G.L. Firestone, Y. Gong, H. Sohn, L. Xue,  “3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a novel mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase inhibitor that can induce p21(Cip1/Waf1) expression by induction of oxidative stress in human breast cancer cells”,  Cancer Res 66(9), (2006), 4880-4887

Dong Quai (Angelica)

A.  Fugh-Berman, and F. Kronenberg, “Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials”, Ann Intern Med 137(10), (2002), 805-813

B. Kaplan, and C. Rotem, “Phyto-Female Complex for the relief of hot flushes, night sweats and quality of sleep: randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study”, Gynecol.Endocrinol 23(2), (2007), 117-122

C. Breed, T.S. Hudson, L. Standish, “Clinical and endocrinological effects of a menopausal botanical formula”, J Naturopathic Med 7(1), (1998), 73-77

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 158-159.

J. R. Du, X. Kuang, Y. X. Liu, Z. M. Qian, C. Y. Wang, and Y. Yao,  “Neuroprotective role of Z-ligustilide against forebrain ischemic injury in ICR mice”, Brain Res 1102(1), (2006), 145-153

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 225.

R. Fagot, B.Kaplan, C. Kupfersztain, and C. Rotem, “The immediate effect of natural plant extract, Angelica sinensis and Matricaria chamomilla (Climex) for the treatment of hot flushes during menopause. A preliminary report”, Clin Exp Obstet.Gynecol (2003), 30(4), 203-206


B. K. Huang, L. Z. Huang, Q.Ye, and L. P. Qin, “Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus”, J Ethnopharmacol 133(1), (2011), 213-219

B.T. Gaffney, H.M. Hugel, P.A. Rich, “The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes”, Life Sci 70(4), (2001), 431-42

H. D. Smolarz and D Zauski, “Eleutherococcus senticosus - an exemplary adaptogenic plant”, Postepy Fitoterapii Warszawa: Borgis Wydawnictwo Medyczne 9(4), (2008), 240-246

H. K.Chang, C. J. Kim, H. Kim, S. S. Kim, H. H. Lee, T. H. Lee, M. C. Shin, M. S. Shin, Y. T. Rhim, S. J. Yoon, “Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats”, J Ethnopharmacol 114(1), (2007), 38-43

I. J. Dionne, E. D. Goulet, “Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance” Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab15(1), (2005), 75-83

J. Daley, “Adaptogens”, J Complement Med 8(1), (2009), 36-38

K. I.  Block, T. Gochenour, C. Gyllenhaal, S. L. Merritt, and S. D. Peterson, “Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders”, Sleep Med Rev 4(3), (2000), 229-251

L. R. Bucci, “Selected herbals and human exercise performance”, Am J Clin Nutr 72(2), (2000), 624S-636S

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 227.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 111-119, 356.

S. Bentler, K. Brake,  Y. Butani,  M. Ernst A. J. Hartz, J. Hoehns, H. Kautzman, C. Logemann,  R. Noyes, S. Sinift, W. Wang, “Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue”, Psychol.Med 34(1), (2004), 51-61

T. Deyama, S. Nishibe, and Y. Nakazawa, “Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng”, Acta Pharmacol Sin. 22(12), (2001),1057-1070

Folic Acid

Roth C. Bjørke-Monsen, “Use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy in relation to maternal plasma levels in week 18 of pregnancy”, Mol Nutr Food Res, (2012)

Goji fruit

H. K. Kim, H. P. Kim, J. Kim, S. Y. Kim, Y. C. Kim, Y. C.  Kim, E. J. Lee, J. H. Park, “Zeaxanthin dipalmitate from Lycium chinense fruit reduces experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats”,  Biol Pharm Bull 25(3), (2002), 390-392

H. P. Kim, S. Y. Kim, Y. C.  Kim, and Y. C. Kim, E. J. Lee, “Zeaxanthin dipalmitate from Lycium chinense has hepatoprotective activity”, Res Commun.Mol.Pathol Pharmacol 97(3), (1997), 301-314

Michael Tierra, Planetary Herbology (Twin Lakes: Lotus Press, 1988)

R. C. Chang, C. M. Che, S. W. Lai, S. K. Leung, K. F. So, M. S. Yu, W. H. Yuen, S. Y. Zee, “Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity”,  Exp Gerontol   40(8-9), (2005), 716-727

Z. H. Jiang, K. S. Leung, Y.Li, C. Ma, Y. Peng, Z. Zhao, “Quantification of zeaxanthin dipalmitate and total carotenoids in Lycium fruits (Fructus Lycii)”,  Plant Foods Hum.Nutr 60(4), (2005), 161-164


R. Liu, F. Meng, Y. Liu, H. Bai, and B.W. Liu, “Inhibitory effect of Isorhamnetin and Hesperidin on LDL oxidation induced by Cu2+”, Zhong.Yao Cai. 30(6), (2007), 677-681

T. L. Cirico, and S. T. Omaye, “Additive or synergetic effects of phenolic compounds on human low density lipoprotein oxidation”, Food Chem Toxico 44(4), (2006), 510-516

High ORAC berry blend

Ronald, L., Sheryl A. Lazarus, Guohua Cao, Helen Muccitelli, and John F. Hammerstone, "Identification of procyanidins and anthocyanins in blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp.) using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(3), (2001), 1270-1276

Wang, Shiow Y., and Hsin-Shan Lin, "Antioxidant activity in fruits and leaves of blackberry, raspberry, and strawberry varies with cultivar and developmental stage", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48(2), (2000), 140-146

Zheng, Wei, and Shiow Y. Wang, "Oxygen radical absorbing capacity of phenolics in blueberries, cranberries, chokeberries, and lingonberries", Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51(2), (2003), 502-509


C. Gennari, “Effect of ipriflavone- a synthetic derivative of natural isoflavones- on bone mass loss in the early years after menopause”, Menopause 5, (1998), 9-15

C.L. Dong, J. Du, S.W. Li,  J.F. Wu, X. Zhang, Y.P. Zhang, “Effects of ipriflavone on postmenopausal syndrome and osteoporosis”, Gynecol Endocrinol 11, (2009), 1-5

D. Agnusdei, “A double-blind, placebo controlled trial of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal spinal bone loss”, Calcification Tissue Int’l 61, (1997), 142-7

K. Kitatani, H. Morii, “Ipriflavone”, Nippon Rinsho 56(6), (1998), 1537-43

S Adami, L Bufalino, R Cervetti, C Di Marco, O Di Munno, L Fantasia, GC Isaia, M Passeri, U Serni, L Vecchiet, “Ipriflavone prevents radial bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass over 2 years”,  Osteoporos Int. 7(2), (1997), 119-25

S. Benvenuti, “Effects of ipriflavone and its metabolites on a clonal osteoblastic cell line”, J Bone Miner Res 6, (1991), 987-96


Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C., Fernando E. Viteri, and Lindsay H. Allen, "Iron absorption from ferrous bisglycinate and ferric trisglycinate in whole maize is regulated by iron status", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(6), (2000), 1563-1569

Bothwell, R. W. Charlton, J. D. Cook, Cl A. Finch, Thomas Hamilton, "Iron metabolism in man", Iron Metabolism in Man, (1979)

Melamed, Nir, Avi Ben-Haroush, Boris Kaplan, and Yariv Yogev, "Iron supplementation in pregnancy—does the preparation matter?”, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 276(6), (2007), 601-604

Pineda, Oscar, and H. DeWayne Ashmead, "Effectiveness of treatment of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and young children with ferrous bis-glycinate chelate", Nutrition 17(5), (2001), 381-384


Erin K. Ceaser, Dale A. Dickinson, Aimee Landar, Anna-Liisa Levonen, Jason D. Morrow, Anup Ramachandran, Victor M. Darley-Usmar, and Giuseppe Zanoni, “Cellular mechanisms of redox cell signalling: role of cysteine modification in controlling antioxidant defences in response to electrophilic lipid oxidation products", Biochemical Journal 378(2), (2004), 373


Paola Borella, Fabio Facchinetti, Loredana Fioroni, Andrea R. Genazzani, Rossella E. Nappi, Grazia Sances, “Oral Magnesium Successfully Relieves Premenstrual Mood Changes”, Obstetrics & Gynecology 78(2), (1991), 177-181


M. A. Beilke, C. Collins-Lech, and P.G. Sohnle, “Effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on the oxidative function of human neutrophils”, J Lab Clin Med, 110(1), (1987), 91-96

G. Atmaca, “Antioxidant effects of sulfur-containing amino acids”, Yonsei Med J 45(5), (2004), 776-88

S. Parcell, “Sulfur in human nutrition and applications in medicine”, Altern Med Rev 7(1), (2002), 22-44

Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 133-134.

M. R. Chen, R. Liang, X. Xu, “Effect of dandi tablet on blood lipids and sex hormones in women of postmenopausal stage”, Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi 23(8), (2003), 593-595

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 233.

R. Y. Chan, N. Y. Ip, D. M. Miller-Martini, S. J. Sheu, and Y. H. Wong, “A reporter gene assay for the detection of phytoestrogens in traditional Chinese medicine”, Phytother Res  15(6), (2001), 487-492

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 192-193.

Poria Cocos ( Fu ling)

Jose-Luis Rios, “Chemical Constituents and Pharmacolgical Properties of Poria cocos”, Planta Med 77, (2011), 681-691

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 227.


A. Crozier, B. Daneshvar, L. O. Dragsted, J. Haraldsdottir, P. Knuthsen,  S.T.  Lauridsen, S. E. Nielsen, B. Sandstrom and J. F. Young, “Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status”, Am J Clin Nutr 69(1), (1999), 87-94

B. Stavric, “Quercetin in our diet: from potent mutagen to probable anticarcinogen”, Clin Biochem 27(4), (1994), 245-248

W. J. Angerson, M. E. Lean, and M .Noroozi, “Effects of flavonoids and vitamin C on oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes”, Am J Clin Nutr  67(6), (1998),1210-1218


A.M. Gouny, P. Gouny, D. Horovitz, “Effectiveness and safety of hydroxyethyl-rutosides in the local treatment of symptoms of venous insufficiency during air travel”, J Mal Vasc 24(3), (1999), 214-220

G. Hennings, W. Nocker, D Rehn, “Time course of the anti-oedematous effect of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in healthy volunteers”, Eur J Clin Pharmacol  40(6), (1991), 625-627


Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 235.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 218-219, 367.

Selenium (L-methyl selenocysteine)

J. Liu, G. Luo, “Selenoproteins and Thyroid Cancer:
Selenoproteins and Mimics”, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, (2012), 173-182

P. D. Whanger,”Selenium and its relationship to cancer: an update”, British Journal of Nutrition, 91, (2004), 11-28

P.D. Whanger, “Selenocompounds in Plants and Animals and their Biological Significance”, J Am Coll Nutr 21(3), (2002), 223-232

Silica-rich bamboo leaf-Silicon

R. Jugdaosingh, “Silicon and Bone Health”, J Nutr Health Aging 11(2), (2007), 99-110


B.W. Nichols, and B. J.B. Wood, "The occurrence and biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis", Lipids 3(1), (1968), 46-50

E. W. Becker, B. Jakober, D. Luft, and R. M. Schmulling, "Clinical and biochemical evaluations of the alga Spirulina with regard to its application in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind cross-over study", Nutrition Reports International 33, (1986)

Hala N. ElSohly, Mahmoud A. ElSohly, Nirmal, Pugh, David S. Pasco, and Samir A. Ross,  "Isolation of three high molecular weight polysaccharide preparations with potent immunostimulatory activity from Spirulina platensis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Chlorella pyrenoidosa", Planta Medica 67(8), (2001), 737-742

H. N. Chou, C. C. Hsieh, J. J. Hsu, H. K. Lu, Y. K. Yang, “Preventive effects of Spirulina platensis on skeletal muscle damage under exercise-induced oxidative stress”,  Eur J Appl Physiol  98(2), (2006), 220-226

J. Armesto, I. Garcia, R. Gonzalez, N. Ledon, D. Remirez, C. Romay, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of C-phycocyanin from blue- green algae”,  Inflamm.Res  47(1), (1998), 36-41

M. E. Gershwin, T. K. Mao, and J. Van de Water, "Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients", Journal of Medicinal Food 8(1), (2005), 27-30

Parada, J. L., Zulpa, de Caire, Zaccaro de Mule, M. C., and Storni de Cano, M. M. “Lactic acid bacteria growth promoters from Spirulina platensis”, Int J Food Microbiol 45(3), (1998), 225-228

P. Bhadouria, Z. Khan, "Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Spirulina", Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6(5), (2005), 373-379

P.C. Bickford, J. Contreras, C.E. Hudson, J.N. Jernberg,  R.L. Klien, J. Morganti, M.M. Pabon,“A Spirulina-Enhanced Diet Provides Neuroprotection in an α-Synuclein Model of Parkinson’s Disease”, PloS One 7(9), (2012), e45256

P. K. Ghosh, S. Mishra, A. Patel, “Antioxidant potential of C-phycocyanin isolated from cyanobacterial species Lyngbya, Phormidium and Spirulina spp”,  Indian J Biochem Biophys  43(1), (2006), 25-31

S. Boussiba, and A. E. Richmond, "C-phycocyanin as a storage protein in the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis", Archives of Microbiology 125(1), (1980), 143-147

T. Inayama, K. Iwata, "Effects of Spirulina platensis on plasma lipoprotein lipase activity in fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats", Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 36(2), (1990), 165-171

Vitamin B12 Methylcobalamin

R.A.S. Hemat, Principles of Orthomolecularism (Urotext, 2004), 233.

Sareen S. Gropper and Jack L. Smith, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism (Belmont,CA: Wadsworth, 2005), 356.

Vitamin C

H. Padh, "Vitamin C: Newer Insights into Its Biochemical Functions", Nutrition Reviews 49(3), (1991), 65-70

Lester Packer, “Vitamin C in health and disease”, CRC 5, (1997)

Vitamin D

C. Garland, F. Garland, "Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Colon Cancer: Eight-Year Prospective Study”, The Lancet 334(8673), (1989), 1176-1178

D. E. Cole, H. M. Trang, "Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2", Am J Clin Nutr 68(4), (1998), 854-858

G. Rammos, P. Tseke, "Vitamin D, the renin-angiotensin system, and insulin resistance", International Urology and Nephrology 40(2), (2008), 419-426

Hugo Van Baelen, Roger Bouillon, Marc De Maeyer, Anja Rabijns, Camiel De Ranter, Christel Verboven, “A structural basis for the unique binding features of the human vitamin D-binding protein”, Nature Structural Biology 9(2), (2002), 131-136

J. L. Anderson, H. T. May, "Relation of Vitamin D Deficiency to Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Disease Status, and Incident Events in a General Healthcare Population", The American Journal of Cardiology 106(7), (2010), 963-968

J. Lau, A.G. Pittas, “The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92(6), (2007), 2017-2029

L.A.G. Armas, J. Grote, R.P. Heaney, R.L. Horst, R.R. Recker, “Vitamin D3 is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans”, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Laura A.G. Armas, Robert P. Heaney, Bruce W. Hollis, “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans”, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89(11), (2004), 5387-5391

Lisa A.Houghton, and Reinhold Vieth, "The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(4), (2006), 694-697

M. F. Holick, “Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease", Am J Clin Nutr 80(6), (2004), 1678S-1688S

M. F. Holick, "Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis", Am J Clin Nutr 79(3), (2004), 362-371

Michael F. Holick, “The Vitamin D Epidemic and its Health Consequences”, J Nutr 135, (2005), 2739S-2748S

M. J. Pencina, T. J. Wang, “Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease", Circulation 117(4), (2008), 503-511

Robert P. Heaney, “Lessons for nutritional science from vitamin D”, Am J Clin Nutr 69, (1999), 825-6

Robert P. Heaney, “Vitamin D: Criteria for safety and efficacy”, Nutrition Reviews 66(2), (2008), S178-S181

R. P. Heaney, R. R. Recker, "Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(3), (2011), E447-E452

U. A.Ajani, E. S. Ford, "Concentrations of Serum Vitamin D and the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Adults", Diabetes Care 28(5), (2005), 1228-1230

Y. Liel, E. Ulmer, "Low circulating vitamin D in obesity", Calcif Tissue Int 43(4), (1988), 199-201

Vitamin E, Mixed Tocopherols

H. N. Bhagavan, and R. K. Chopra, "Relative bioavailabilities of natural and synthetic vitamin E formulations containing mixed tocopherols in human subjects", International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 69(2), (1999), 92-95

J. Ju, H. J. Lee, "Mixed Tocopherols Prevent Mammary Tumorigenesis by Inhibiting Estrogen Action and Activating PPAR-γ", Clinical Cancer Research 15(12), (2009), 4242-4249

K. Saldeen, and T. Saldeen, "Importance of tocopherols beyond α-tocopherol: evidence from animal and human studies", Nutrition Research 25(10), (2005), 877-889

M. Liu, R. Wallin, "Mixed Tocopherols Have a Stronger Inhibitory Effect on Lipid Peroxidation Than [alpha]-Tocopherol Alone", Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 39(5), (2002), 714-721

N. C. Ward, J. H. Y. Wu, "Effects of α-Tocopherol and Mixed Tocopherol Supplementation on Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes", Clinical Chemistry 53(3), (2007), 511-519

Vitamin K1

N. Ibarrola-Jurado, J. Salas Salvadó, “Dietary phylloquinone intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease”, Am J Clin Nutr, (2012)

Vitamin K2 (MK-7)

M. Neale Weitzmann, Masayoshi Yamaguchi, “Vitamin K2 stimulates osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kB activation”, International Journal of Molecular Medicine, (2010), 3-14

T. Sato, L.J. Schurgers, K. Uenishi, “Comparison of menaquinone-4 and menaquinoine-7 bioavailability in healthy women”, Nutrition Journal 11, (2012), 93


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