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Ionic-Fizz™ - Research Citations

A. Boskey, A. Posner, “Effect of magnesium on lipid-induced calcification: An in vitro model for bone mineralization”, Calcified Tissue International 32(1), (1980), 139-143

A. C. Hardcastle and H.M. Macdonald, "Dietary silicon interacts with oestrogen to influence bone health: Evidence from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study", Bone, 50(3), (2012), 681-687

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, (41) 254, (1985)

A.V. Schwartz, “International Variation in the Incidence of HIP Fractures: Cross-National Project on Osteoporosis for the World Health Org. Program for Research on Aging”, Osteoporosis International, 9 (3), (1999), 242-253

B. Farmer, D. M. Spiegel, "Long-term effects of magnesium carbonate on coronary artery calcification and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients: A pilot study,” Hemodialysis International 13(4), (2009), 453-459

B.N. Ames, J.C. McCann, “Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging?”, Am J Clin Nutr, 90(4), (2009), 889-907, Epub (2009) Aug 19

C. Cooper and E.M. Lau, “Epidemiology and Prevention of Osteoporosis in Urbanized Asian Populations”, Osteoporosis, 3 (1), (1993), 23-26

C. R. Kessenich,“Osteoporosis and African-American Women”,  Women’s Health Issues,10(6), (2000), 300-304

C. Vermeer, E. Theuwissen, “Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing”, Menopause Int 17(1), (2011), 19-23

“Effect on Bone and Mineral Metabolism in the Mouse”, Calcif Tissue Int, 72, (2003), 32-41

F. Brouns, E.G. van den Heuvel, T. Muijs, “Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake”, Nutr Res  29(4), (2009), 229-37

E.M. Lau, “Admission rates for Hip Fracture in Australia in the Last Decade”, Medical Journal of Australia, 158(9), (1993), 604-606

F. Andrasik, L. Grazzi, and S. Usai, “Magnesium as a preventive treatment for paediatric episodic tension-type headache: results at 1-year follow-up”, Neurol Sci 28(3), (2007), 148-50

F.R. Ellis, J.W. Ellis, S. Holesh,”Incidence of Osteoporosis in Vegetarians and Omnivores”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 25, (1972), 555

H. Alexander Heggtveit, M.D, Lawrence Herman, PH.D, and Rajendra KL Mismu, M.D., “Cardiac Necrosis and Calcification in Experiential Magnesium Deficiency A Light and Electron Microscopic Study”

H Erik Meema, Dimitrios G Oreopoulos and Abraham Rapoport, “Serum magnesium level and arterial calcification in end-stage renal disease”, Kidney International 32, (1987), 388–394

H.L. Chen, M.T. Hannan, K.L. Tucker, “Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 69 (4), (1999), 727-736

H. Oishi, M..Yamaguchi,"Stimulatory effect of zinc on bone formation in tissue culture", Biochemical Pharmacology 36(22), (1987), 4007-4012

H.O S.C., “The Prevalence of Osteoporosis in the Hong Kong Female Population”, Maturiats, (1999), 171-178

H. Park, G.L. Parker, “A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients”, Support Care Cancer, 19(6), (2011), 859-63

I. Paspati, “Hip Fracture Epidemiology in Greece from 1977-1992”, Calc Tissue Intl 6, (1998), 542-547

J. Adams, J. Pepping, “Vitamin K in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis and arterial calcification”, Am J Health Syst Pharm 62 (15), (2005), 1574-81

J. Cao, M. Sun, T. Yuen, L-L. Zhu, R. Zhou, “Vitamin C Prevents Hypogonadal Bone Loss”, PLoS ONE 7(10), (2012)

J.E. Sojka, C.M.Weaver, Nutrition Review 53 (3), (1995), 71-74

Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 35, (1999), 503

K. Kruger, F.C. Mooren, and K Volker, “Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial”, Diabetes Obes Metab, (2010)

L. Carpenter, L. Kass, and J. Weekes, “Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis”, Eur J Clin Nutr. (2012), doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.4

L. Xu, “Very Low Rates of Hip Fracture in Beijing, People’s Republic of China: The Beijing Osteoporosis Project”, American Journal of Epidemiology 144 (9), (1996), 901-907

M. Herrmann, J. Peter Schmidt, N. Umanskaya, A. Wagner, O. Taban-Shomal, T. Widmann, G. Colaianni, B. Wildemann, W, Herrmann, “The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as well as folate, vitamin B(6) and B(12) deficiencies in osteoporosis: a systematic review”, Clin Chem Lab Med. Source ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW, Australia. 45(12), (2007), 1621-32

N. Echahidi, G. O'Hara, P. Pibarot, “Mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery”, J Am Coll Cardiol. 51 (8), (2008), 793-801

N.K. Fuchs, “Magnesium: A Key to Calcium Absorption”, The Magnesium Website, (2002)

R.D. Abbott, F. Ando, J.D. Curb, K.H. Masaki, H. Petrovitch, B.L. Rodriguez, K.H. Tung, K. Yano, “Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (the Honolulu Heart Program)”, Am J Cardiol  92 (6),(2003), 665-9

R.G. Versluis, “Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Women in The Netherlands”, Tijdscher Geneesk, 143 (1), (1999), 20-24

R.L.Bauer, “Ethnic Difference in the Hip Fracture: A Reduced Incidence in Mexican Americans”, American Journal of Epidemiology, 127 (1), (1988), 145-149

S. Larsson, N. Orsini, A. Wolk, “Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies”, Am J Clin Nutr, (2012)

T. Fujita, and M. Fukase, “Comparison of Osteoporosis and Calcium Intake in Japan and the United States”, Professional Society for the Exploration of Biological Medicine, 200 (2), (1992), 149-152

W.M. Britton, and E.L.R Stokstad, “Aorta and other soft tissue calcification in the magnesium-deficient rat”, Journal of Nutrition 100, (1970), 1501-1505

Y. Rayssiguier, “Role of magnesium and potassium in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis", Magnesium 3(4-6), (1984), 226-238

Y. Honda, J Iwamoto, T. Kanoko, Y. Sato, K. Satoh,“Effect of folate and mecobalamin on hip fractures in patients with stroke: a randomized controlled trial”, Source Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Tagawa, Japan  JAMA., 293(9), (2005), 1082-8


A. Irwin, M.A. Kenney,  H. McCoy, C. Montgomery, R. Orell, L. Williams, “Relation of Boron to the composition and mechanical properties of bone”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 49-53

C.D. Hunt,”The biochemical effects of physiologic amounts of dietary boron in animal nutrition models”, Environ Health Perspect 102(7), (1994), 35-43

C.D. Hunt, J.R. Hunt, L.M. Mullen, F.H. Nielsen, ”Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women”, FASEB J  1(5), (1987), 394-7

L. J. Taper, S. L. Volpe, "The relationship between boron and magnesium status and bone mineral density in the human: a review", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 6(3), (1993), 291-296


B. M. Altura and B. T. Altura, “Magnesium and contraction of arterial smooth muscle", Microvascular Research 7(2), (1974), 45-155

Cathleen Carter, Chester Fox, Delano Ramsoomair, “Magnesium: Its Proven and Potential Clinical Significance”, Southern Medical Journal 94(12), (2001)

D. E.Green, “Fatty Acid Oxidation in Soluble Systems of Animal Tissues”, Biological Reviews 29(3), (1954), 330-366

D.F. Bohr, “Electrolytes and Smooth Muscle Contraction”, Pharmacological Reviews 16(1), (1964), 85-111

D. Mullikin and L. T. Williams, "Magnesium dependence of agonist binding to adenylate cyclase-coupled hormone receptors", Journal of Biological Chemistry 253(9), (1978), 2984-2989

G. Berg, L. O. Dahle, "The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps", American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 173(1), (1995), 175-180

H. Ebel, and T. Günther, “Magnesium Metabolism: A Review”, Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 18(5), (2009), 257-312

L. G. RAISZ, "Effect of Phosphate, Calcium and Magnesium on Bone Resorption and Hormonal Responses in Tissue Culture", Endocrinology 85(3),(1969), 446-452

M. E. Morris, "Brain and CSF magnesium concentrations during magnesium deficit in animals and humans: neurological symptoms", Magnesium research: official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium 5(4), (1992), 303-313

Paola Borella, Fabio Facchinetti, Loredana Fioroni, Andrea R. Genazzani, Rossella E. Nappi, Grazia Sances, “Oral Magnesium Successfully Relieves Premenstrual Mood Changes”, Obstetrics & Gynecology 78(2), (1991), 177-181

Peter Ade, Katharina E  Scholz-Ahrens, Yahya.Asil, Claus-C. Gluer, Berit Marten, Jurgen Schrezenmeir, Wolfram Timm, Petra Weber, “Prebiotics, Probiotics, and Synbiotics Affect Mineral Absorption, Bone Mineral Content, and Bone Structure”,The Journal of Nutrition, (2007), 838S-846S

Stephen Daniells, “Prebiotics may enhance magnesium uptake from diet: Rat Data”, Nutra Ingredients, (2012)

T. P. O. Cheng, A. Zhang, "Magnesium regulates intracellular free ionized calcium concentration and cell geometry in vascular smooth muscle cells”, Molecular Cell Research 1134(1), (1992), 25-29

Beta Carotene

Cristina Palacios, "The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z", Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 46(8), (2006), 621-628

H. Sies and W. Stahl, "Antioxidant activity of carotenoids", Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24(6), (2003), 345-351

James Allen Olson, "Provitamin A function of carotenoids: the conversion of beta-carotene into vitamin A", The Journal of Nutrition 119(1), (1989), 105

Joseph L Napoli, and Kevin R. Race,"Biogenesis of retinoic acid from beta-carotene. Differences between the metabolism of beta-carotene and retinal", Journal of Biological Chemistry 263(33), (1988), 17372-17377

 Mark Berneburg, Regina Goralczyk, Eicker, Jörg, Viola Kürten, Jean Krutmann, Georges Riss, and Susanne Wild, "Betacarotene supplementation protects from photoaging-associated mitochondrial DNA mutation", Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2(6), (2003), 655-659

R. Blomstrand, Dew S. Goodman, Helen S. Huang, T. Shiratori and B. Werner, "The intestinal absorption and metabolism of vitamin A and beta-carotene in man", Journal of Clinical Investigation 45(10), (1966), 1615

Vitamin C

H. Padh, "Vitamin C: Newer Insights into Its Biochemical Functions", Nutrition Reviews 49(3), (1991), 65-70

Lester Packer, “Vitamin C in health and disease”, CRC 5, (1997)

Vitamin D

Bio-Ying Bao, Huei-ju Ting, Jong-We Hsu and Yi-Fen Lee, “Protective role of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 against oxidative stress in nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cells”, Int J Cancer 122, (2008), 2699-2706

C. Garland, F. Garland, “Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Colon Cancer: Eight-year prospective study”, The Lancet 334(8673), (1989), 1176-1178

D. E. Cole, H. M. Trang, "Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2", Am J Clin Nutr 68(4), (1998), 854-858

G. Rammos, P. Tseke, "Vitamin D, the renin-angiotensin system, and insulin resistance", International Urology and Nephrology 40(2), (2008), 419-426

J. L. Anderson, H. T. May, "Relation of Vitamin D Deficiency to Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Disease Status, and Incident Events in a General Healthcare Population", The American Journal of Cardiology 106(7), (2010), 963-968

J. Lau, A.G. Pittas, "The Role of Vitamin D and Calcium in Type 2 Diabetes. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92(6), (2007), 2017-2029

J. Michael Gaziano, Edward L. Giovannucci, J. Bruce W. Hollis, David Hunter, Haojie Li, Jing Ma, Lorelei A. Mucci, Meir J. Stampfer, “A Prospective Study of Plasma Vitamin D Metabolites, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms, and Prostate Cancer”, PLoS Medicine 4(3), (2007), 0562-0571

K. Helzlsouer, J. Tangrea, "Serum levels of vitamin D metabolites and the subsequent risk of colon and rectal cancer in Finnish men", Cancer Causes and Control 8(4), (1997), 615-625

Laura A. G. Armas, Bruce W. Hollis, and Robert P. Heaney, “Vitamin D2 Is Much Less Effective than Vitamin D3 in Humans”, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89(11), (2004), 5387-5391 

Lisa A.Houghton, and Reinhold Vieth, "The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84(4), (2006), 694-697

M. F. Holick, “Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease", Am J Clin Nutr 80(6), (2004), 1678S-1688S

M. F. Holick, "Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis", Am J Clin Nutr 79(3), (2004), 362-371

M. J. Pencina, T. J. Wang, Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease", Circulation 117(4), (2008), 503-511

R. P. Heaney, R. R. Recker, "Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans", Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 96(3), (2011), E447-E452

U. A.Ajani , E. S. Ford, "Concentrations of Serum Vitamin D and the Metabolic Syndrome Among U.S. Adults", Diabetes Care 28(5), (2005), 1228-1230

Y. Liel, E. Ulmer, "Low circulating vitamin D in obesity", Calcif Tissue Int 43(4), (1988), 199-201

Vitamin K2 (MK-7) - Super D-K Only

M. Neale Weitzmann, Masayoshi Yamaguchi, “Vitamin K2 stimulates osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kB activation”, International Journal of Molecular Medicine, (2010), 3-14


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