facebook  twitter  twitter  LinkedIn      


CalmEssence™ - Research Citations


Dr. David Frawley and Dr. Vasant Lad, The Yoga of Herbs (Wisconsin: Lotus Press, 2001), 160-161.

Lakshmi-Chandra, Mishra, Betsy B. Singh, and Simon Dagenais, "Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review", Alternative Medicine Review 5(4), (2000), 334-346

R. Nath, N. Singh, "Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha), a Rejuvenating Herbal Drug Which Enhances Survival During Stress (an Adaptogen)", Pharmaceutical Biology 20(1), (1982), 29-35

Singh, Narendra, Mohit Bhalla, Prashanti de Jager, and Marilena Gilca, "An Overview on Ashwagandha: A Rasayana (Rejuvenator) of Ayurveda", African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 8(5), (2011)

Steven Maimes, David Winston, “Adaptogens: Herbs for strength, stamina, and stress relief”, Bear, (2007)


Christopher Hobbs, Medicinal Mushrooms (California: Botanica Press, 1986), 81-86.

G. Cheng, X.Z. Huang, Y. Xiao, “Increased aerobic capacity in healthy elderly human adults given a fermentation product of Cordyceps Cs-4”, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, (1999), S174

G. M. Halpern, K. Jones, J. S. Zhu, “The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II”, J Altern Complement Med 4(4), (1998), 429-457

Lu, Zhu Lingyuan Fang. "Studies on the Nourshing and Strengthening Effects of Cordyceps", Acta Academiae Medicinae Jiangxi 3, (1997)

M. Abrazado, S. Li, “Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”, J Altern Complement Med 16(5), (2010), 585-90

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 129-133.

T. B. Ng and H. X. Wang, “Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine”, J Pharm Pharmacol 57(12), (2005), 1509-1519

Y.S. Chang, C.S. Chen, C.S. Chiang, C.Y. Chuang, R.S. Hseu, I.C. Hsu, C.L. Huang, C.Y. Li, J.G. Lin, W.Y. Shu, Y.C. Sun, M.L. Tsai, “Two-sided effect of Cordyceps sinensis on dendritic cells in different physiological stages”, J Leukoc Biol. 85(6), (2009), 987-95

Eleuthero root

B. K. Huang, L. Z. Huang, L. P. Qin, Q.Ye, “Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus”, J Ethnopharmacol 133(1), (2011), 213-219

B.T. Gaffney, H.M. Hugel, P.A. Rich, “The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes”, Life Sci 70(4), (2001), 431-42

I. J. Dionne, E. D. Goulet, “Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance”, Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15(1), (2005), 75-83

H. D. Smolarz and D. Zauski, “Eleutherococcus senticosus - an exemplary adaptogenic plant”, Postepy Fitoterapii Warszawa: Borgis Wydawnictwo Medyczne 9(4), (2008), 240-246

H. K.Chang, C. J. Kim, H. Kim, S. S. Kim, H. H. Lee,  T. H. Lee, Y. T. Rhim, M. C. Shin, M. S. Shin, S. J. Yoon, “Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats”, J Ethnopharmacol 114(1), (2007), 38-43

J. Daley, “Adaptogens”, J Complement Med 8(1), (2009), 36-38

K. I.  Block, T. Gochenour, C. Gyllenhaal, S. L. Merritt, and S. D. Peterson, “Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders”, Sleep Med Rev 4(3), (2000), 229-251

L. R. Bucci, “Selected herbals and human exercise performance”, Am J Clin Nutr 72(2), (2000), 624S-636S

Michael Tierra, The Way of Herbs, (New York: Pocket Books, 1980), 227.

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 111-119, 356.

S. Bentler, K. Brake,  Y. Butani,  M. Ernst A. J. Hartz, J. Hoehns, H. Kautzman, C. Logemann,  R. Noyes, S. Sinift, W. Wang, “Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue”, Psychol Med 34(1), (2004), 51-61

T. Deyama, S. Nishibe, and Y. Nakazawa, “Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng”, Acta Pharmacol Sin 22(12), (2001), 1057-1070

Magnolia bark

H Kuribara, Y. Maruyama, WB Stavinoha, “Behavioural pharmacological characteristics of honokiol, an anxiolytic agent present in extracts of Magnolia bark, evaluated by an elevated plus-maze test in mice”,J Pharm Pharmacol 50(7), (1998), 819-26

S. Feldman, Feldman, D. Kalman, “Effect of proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on stress levels in helahty women: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial”, Nutrition Journal 7(11), (2008), 1-6

W. G. Chambliss, and R.Garrison, "Effect of a proprietary Magnolia and Phellodendron extract on weight management: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial", Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 12(1), (2006), 50

Erik M.G. Olsson, Alexander G. Panossian, Bo von Scheele, “A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Standardised Extract SHR-5 of the Roots of Rhodiola rosea in the Treatment of Subjects with Stress-Related Fatigue”, Planta Med 75(2), (2009), 105-112

L. Mattioli, M. Perfumi , “Adaptogenic and central nervous system effects of single doses of 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside Rhodiola rosea L. extract in mice”, Phytother Res. 21 (1), (2007), 37-43

Schizandra fruit

E. I. Mel'nik, S. S. Timoshin, "Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress",  Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine 98(6), (1984), 1706-1708

F. Ahumada, J. Hermosilla, "Studies on the effect of Schizandra chinensis extract on horses submitted to exercise and maximum effort",  Phytotherapy Research 3(5), (1989), 175-179

G. N. Choi, S. G. Choi, H. J. Heo, C. H. Jeong,  J. H. Kim, and J.H. Kwak, "Antioxidant and neuronal cell protective effects of methanol extract from Schizandra chinensis using an in vitro system", Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology 41, (2009)

M. H. Joo, S.H. Kim, and S.H. Yoo, "Structural identification and antioxidant properties of major anthocyanin extracted from Omija (Schizandra chinensis) fruit", Journal of Food Science 74(2), (2009), C134-C140

P. J. Chu, N. Nishiyama, "An herbal prescription, S-113m, consisting of biota, ginseng and schizandra, improves learning performance in senescence accelerated mouse" Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 19(3), (1996), 388-393

Ron Teeguarden, The Ancient Wisdom of the Chinese Tonic Herbs (New York: Warner Books, 1998), 145-150, 366.

Suntheanine (L THEANINE)

C. F. Bartholomeusz, M. A. Gray, B. J. Harrison, D. T. Liley, K. Lu, P. J. Nathan, C. Oliver, K. L. Phan, “The acute effects of L-theanine in comparison with alprazolam on anticipatory anxiety in humans”, Hum Psychopharmacol  19(7), (2004), 457-465

J.H. Jung, K.S. Kim, J.S. Oh, C.H. Song, “Effects of Theanine on the Release of Brain Alpha Wave in Adult Males”, Korean J Nutr, 36(9), (2003), 918-923

J. J. Foxe, M.Gomez-Ramirez, B. A. Higgins, J. Mahoney, G. N. Owen, J. A. Rycroft, M. Shpaner, “The deployment of intersensory selective attention: a high-density electrical mapping study of the effects of theanine”, Clin Neuropharmacol   30(1), (2007), 25-38

L. R. Juneja, K. Kimura, H. Ohira, M. Ozeki, “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses”, Biol Psychol 74(1), (2007), 39-45

 N. Aol, L.R. Juneja, J. Kim, K. Kobayashi,  Y. Nagato,  S. Sugimoto, T. Yamamoto, “Effects of L-theanine on the release of α-brain waves in human volunteers”, Nippon Nōgei Kagakukaishi 72(2), (1998), 153-157


G. Eschenauer, “Pharmacology and therapeutic uses of theanine”, Am J Health Syst Pharm 63(1), (2006), 26, 28-30


Pure Essence Labs - Home Page